Recebido em 26/9/08; aceito em 24/4/09; publicado na web em 7/10/09 AGGREGATION PHEROMONE IN CURCULIONIDAE (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA) AND THEIR TAXONOMIC IMPLICATION. The pheromones of the weevils has been the most studied and used so far for Coleoptera species. The majority of reported weevil pheromones is produced by males and usually attract both sexes. The identified pheromone compounds are classified in two categories: ten-carbon compounds with terpenoid branching and compounds of various sizes, apparently of fatty-acid origin. These pheromone structural categories are consistent within subfamilies. This review aims to give an overview of the aggregation pheromones identified for Curculionidae pests, describing the relationship of the molecules structural pattern among subfamilies, and propose an identification key based on the structure of the pheromone components.Keywords: weevils; pheromone structure; identification key.
INTRODUÇÃOOs curculionídeos são besouros da superfamília Curculionoidea, com cerca de 60.000 espécies descritas.1 Os adultos da família Curculionidae são facilmente reconhecidos pela presença de uma cabeça prolongada em um rostro de comprimento muito variável, assim como antenas genículo-clavadas 2 (Figura 1). Os curculionídeos, em sua grande maioria, são fitófagos, tanto na fase larval como na adulta.
3Muitas espécies são importantes pragas de diversas culturas, bem como de grãos armazenados, e a necessidade constante de medidas de controle mais efetivas e seguras ao meio ambiente tem exigido da comunidade científica a busca por novos métodos de controle para minimizar o impacto desses insetos. Como em outros grupos de insetos, esta necessidade tem aumentado a investigação do uso de feromônios como mais uma ferramenta no manejo dessas pragas. Um trabalho extensivo tem sido feito na identificação de feromônios e seu uso dentro da família Curculionidae, 4 exemplificado pelas décadas de pesquisa conduzidas com o bicudo do algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis.5 Seguindo a identificação de quatro componentes do feromônio de agregação de A. grandis, 6 feromônios de várias espécies de curculionídeos têm sido identificados.A maioria dos feromônios relatada em curculionídeos é produzida pelos machos e usualmente atrai ambos os sexos, por isso são conhecidos como feromônios de agregação. Entretanto, alguns feromônios também têm sido verificados em fêmeas. Estes incluem feromônios sexuais de longa-distância, que atraem principalmente machos, curta-distância ou feromônio de contato, que permitem reconhecer coespecíficos e feromônio de oviposição, que algumas fêmeas usam para marcar os hospedeiros, nos quais elas colocam seus ovos. Finalmente, existem exemplos de curculionídeos utilizando feromônios de outras espécies de besouros, como cairomônios. 4 Em virtude de seus hábitos de vida, o estudo comportamental de curculionídeos é relativamente complexo. Uma alternativa que evita muitos problemas com bioensaios e acelera o processo de identificação é a cromatografia gasosa acoplada à eletroantenografia (CG-EAG)....
ABSTRACT. In this study different sampling techniques for Diplopoda in soil, tree trunks and canopies were applied in an integrated way in the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was done in order to assess the relationship within the fauna in each forest strata, as well as its richness and temporal distribution. In all these habitats there were a total of 1,354 diplopods, distributed in four taxonomic orders, with Polyxenida being predominant over Polydesmida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. The largest representation was found on the trunks of the Vochysia divergens (721 ind.), intercepted by tree photoecletors, whereas in the canopies sampling reached only 65 specimens. In the edaphic stratum 568 diplopods were captured, most with the use of the Winkler extractor, followed by pitfall traps and soil photoecletors. In spite of being an important group in these environments, both in terms of richness and diversity, this was less than has been observed in other Neotropical areas. However, due to seasonal changes in the Pantanal the existence of a relationship between the soil and the tree fauna was found as well as different survival strategies observed during the flood period. Regarding vertical distribution, the greatest richness and variety of taxonomic groups was found in the forest's edaphic environment demonstrating its association mainly with this forest stratum.
Pseudoscorpions embrace a diverse group of arachnids with approximately 3 500 species that occur in various habitats, such as soil, leaf litter, caves and canopies. This study aimed at evaluating the relationship between the pseudoscorpion assemblages in soil, termite nests, tree trunks and canopies, as well as the temporal distribution as to the abundance and richness of species in these habitats. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied in an integrated manner in distinct habitats of a seasonally flooded monodominant forest in the Northern Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data regarding the abundance and richness of assemblage species were organized by means of the Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). A total of 2 068 Pseudoscorpiones distributed in seven families and 18 species were captured. Chernetidae (8 spp.) and Withiidae (5 spp.) predominated, while Atemnidae, Cheiridiidae, Geogarypidae, Lechytiidae and Olpiidae were present with only one species each. Terrestrial fauna was more abundant (1 035 ind.; 50.0 % of the total catch) with three families and 10 species. In the arboreal fauna (712 ind.; 34.4 %), four families and 13 species were found. Termite mounds (321 ind.; 15.6 %) corresponded to the habitat with the least number of individuals, however, five families and nine species were identified, including Parachernes sp. 2, Geogarypus sp. and Olpiolum sp., not found in other analyzed habitats in this forest. The analyses did not show any temporal variation as to abundance or richness of Pseudoscorpiones in each evaluated habitat; however, the analysis showed that the edaphic environment (soil + termite nests), tree trunks and tree canopies are distinct habitats in relation to the composition of the assemblage. The occurrence of typical terricolous (e.g. Parawithius sp., Withiidae gen. sp. and Parachernes sp.) and other arboricolous (e.g. Cheiridium sp., Americhernes sp. and Lustrochernes sp.) species highlights the vertical stratification of the assemblage present in this floodplain forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (2): 445-459. Epub 2017 June 01.
ABSTRACT. This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae) The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens. The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy.The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.
Here we examine the taxonomic diversity of the Brazilian Apioninae (Coleoptera: Brentidae) and provide an update based on the literature and through examination of material in primary Brazilian collections. Ten genera and 89 species are valid and we include 30 (25 genera, 5 species) new distribution records. Chrysapion Kissinger, 1968 is first reported in Brazil, restricted to the northeast. Ranges now include the Amazon (three genera and one subgenus) and Atlantic (four genera and one subgenus) forests, the Pantanal (five genera) and Cerrado (three genera). The ranges of several genera now include more than one new biome. An identification key (including images of adults and illustrations of male genitalia) also includes the 10 Brazilian genera of Apioninae for the first time.
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