Experiments using mammalian epithelial cell lines have elucidated biosynthetic and recycling pathways for apical and basolateral plasma-membrane proteins, and have identified components that guide apical and basolateral proteins along these pathways. These components include apical and basolateral sorting signals, adaptors for basolateral signals, and docking and fusion proteins for vesicular trafficking. Recent live-cell-imaging studies provide a real-time view of sorting processes in epithelial cells, including key roles for actin, microtubules and motors in the organization of post-Golgi trafficking.
Annexin 2 is a profibrinolytic co-receptor for plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator that stimulates activation of the major fibrinolysin, plasmin, at cell surfaces. In human subjects, overexpression of annexin 2 in acute promyelocytic leukemia leads to a bleeding diathesis reflective of excessive cell surface annexin 2-de- Investig. 113, 38 -48). Here, we show that endothelial cell annexin 2, a protein that lacks a typical signal peptide, translocates from the cytoplasm to the extracytoplasmic plasma membrane in response to brief temperature stress both in vitro and in vivo in the absence of cell death or cell lysis. This regulated response is independent of new protein or mRNA synthesis and does not require the classical endoplasmic reticulumGolgi pathway. Temperature stress-induced annexin 2 translocation is dependent on both expression of protein p11 (S100A10) and tyrosine phosphorylation of annexin 2 because annexin 2 release is completely eliminated on depletion of p11, inactivation of tyrosine kinase, or mutation of tyrosine 23. Translocation of annexin 2 to the cell surface dramatically increases tissue plasminogen activator-dependent plasminogen activation potential and may represent a novel stress-induced protein secretion pathway.
n higher eukaryotes, secretory and plasma-membrane proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to a central Golgi complex and subsequently packaged into membrane-bound carriers for delivery to the cell surface. The long-distance transport of post-Golgi organelles to the tips of axons or to developing hyphal extensions in Neurospora crassa shows an absolute requirement for microtubules and microtubule-associated motors 1,2 . In contrast, microtubule disruption only moderately attenuates Golgi-toplasma-membrane transport in fibroblasts and randomizes surface delivery of select proteins in epithelial cells 3,4 . The observed preservation of biosynthetic transport after microtubule disruption is probably due to the extensive fragmentation and redistribution of Golgi mini-stacks to regions immediately adjacent to both the ER and the plasma membrane 3,5,6 . Here we have designed experiments to test the hypothesis that when the characteristic central localization of the Golgi is preserved, microtubules, kinesin and the GTPase dynamin are essential for post-Golgi trafficking. We ruled out a pharmacological approach to tackling this problem because we found that microtubule antagonists caused dispersal of the Golgi complex before complete microtubule disassembly occurred (see Supplementary Information). Instead, we microinjected functionblocking anti-kinesin antibodies HD and SUK-4 or cDNAs encoding a dominant-negative form of dynamin into cells expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged apical-membrane protein, p75. We show that kinesin and dynamin are required for different stages of post-Golgi transport.During a 2.5-h transport block at 20 °C, newly synthesized p75-GFP translocated from the ER to a juxtanuclear region (Fig. 1a, control, 0 min) and co-localized with Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) markers (Fig. 1b). Within 4 h after shifting to the permissive temperature for transport, 32 °C, 81% of p75-GFP translocated from the Golgi to the plasma membrane (Fig. 1a, control, 240 min). The emptying rate of p75-GFP from the Golgi correlated with its arrival at the cell surface, as determined by immunocytochemical analysis of p75 in injected cells (data not shown) and by pulsechase, surface-biotinylation assays of p75 or p75-GFP in stable MDCK transfectants (see Supplementary Information). Normal trafficking of p75 was unaffected by the GFP tag: microinjected p75-GFP was selectively delivered to the apical membrane of confluent, polarized MDCK cells (data not shown). Figure 1 Inhibition of kinesin activity or expression of D2K44E inhibits release of p75-GFP from the Golgi/TGN after release from a block at 20 °C. a, Cells were microinjected with p75-GFP alone (control; n = 19) or with p75-GFP and HD (n = 13), SUK-4 (n = 8), wild-type dynamin-2 cDNA (n = 9) or cDNA encoding a dominantnegative dynamin-2, D2K44E (n = 15). Exit of p75-GFP from the Golgi/TGN was monitored by time-lapse imaging after shifting to 32 °C. First (0 min) and last (240 min) images from representative recordings are shown. In ...
Modified viruses are used as gene transfer vectors because of their ability to transfer genetic material efficiently to the nucleus of a target cell. To better understand intracellular translocation of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad), fluorophores were covalently conjugated to Ad capsids, and movement of fluorescent Ad within the cytoplasm was observed during the first hour of infection of a human lung epithelial carcinoma cell line (A549). Ad translocation was characterized with respect to its ability to achieve nuclear envelope localization as well as directed movement in the cytoplasm. Whereas Ad achieved efficient nuclear localization 60 min after infection of A549 cells under control conditions, depolymerization of the microtubule cytoskeleton by addition of 25 microM nocodazole reversibly inhibited development of nuclear localization. In contrast, depolymerization of microfilaments by addition of 1 microM cytochalasin D had no effect on nuclear localization. Direct video observation of Ad motility showed that nocodazole, but not cytochalasin D, caused a reversible decrease in rapid linear translocations of Ad in the cytoplasm of A549 cells. Microinjection of function-blocking antibodies against the microtubule-dependent motor protein, cytoplasmic dynein, but not kinesin, blocked nuclear localization of Ad, consistent with net minus end-directed motility indicated by accumulation of Ad at mitotic spindles. Fluorescence ratio imaging revealed a neutral pH in the environment of translocating Ad, leading to a model in which the interaction of Ad with an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and functional cytoplasmic dynein occurs after escape from endosomes and is a necessary prerequisite to nuclear localization of adenovirus serotype 5.
Targeted delivery of proteins to distinct plasma membrane domains is critical to the development and maintenance of polarity in epithelial cells. We used confocal and time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM) to study changes in localization and exocytic sites of post-Golgi transport intermediates (PGTIs) carrying GFP-tagged apical or basolateral membrane proteins during epithelial polarization. In non-polarized Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, apical and basolateral PGTIs were present throughout the cytoplasm and were observed to fuse with the basal domain of the plasma membrane. During polarization, apical and basolateral PGTIs were restricted to different regions of the cytoplasm and their fusion with the basal membrane was completely abrogated. Quantitative analysis suggested that basolateral, but not apical, PGTIs fused with the lateral membrane in polarized cells, correlating with the restricted localization of Syntaxins 4 and 3 to lateral and apical membrane domains, respectively. Microtubule disruption induced Syntaxin 3 depolarization and fusion of apical PGTIs with the basal membrane, but affected neither the lateral localization of Syntaxin 4 or Sec6, nor promoted fusion of basolateral PGTIs with the basal membrane.
Diapedesis of leukocytes across endothelial cells is a crucial step in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Surface molecules on leukocytes and endothelial cells critical for diapedesis have been identified, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not understood. Homophilic interaction between platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) on leukocytes and PECAM at the endothelial border triggers targeted recycling of membrane from a reticulum localized close to the endothelial cell lateral border. This membrane surrounds the transmigrating leukocyte (Mamdouh, Z., X. Chen, L.M. Pierini, F.R. Maxfield, and W.A. Muller. 2003. Nature. 421:748–753). How this process occurs and whether it is required for diapedesis independent of PECAM are not known. We now report that targeted recycling from this lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) is required for diapedesis, is mediated by kinesin family molecular motors, and requires normally functioning endothelial microtubules. Selective disruption of microtubules or inhibition of kinesin motor domain blocked targeted recycling and diapedesis of monocytes. Furthermore, targeted recycling of membrane from the LBRC was required for transmigration of lymphocytes, which migrate independently of PECAM. Thus, trafficking of membrane from the LBRC to surround leukocytes may be a general requirement for migration of leukocytes across the endothelial cell border. Furthermore, these data provide the first demonstration of a role for endothelial microtubules and kinesins in promoting diapedesis, and a mechanism to explain targeted recycling.
It is well established that Rho-GTPases regulate vesicle fusion and fission events at the plasma membrane through their modulatory role on the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In contrast, their effects on intracellular transport processes and actin pools are less clear. It was recently shown that cdc42 associates with the Golgi apparatus in an ARF-dependent manner, similarly to coat proteins involved in vesicle formation and to several actin-binding proteins. We report here that mutants of cdc42 inhibited the exit of basolateral proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN), while stimulating the exit of an apical marker, in two different transport assays. This regulation may result from modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, as GTPase-deficient cdc42 depleted a perinuclear actin pool that rapidly exchanges with exogenous fluorescent actin.
Posttranslationally modified forms of tubulin accumulate in the subset of stabilized microtubules (MTs) in cells but are not themselves involved in generating MT stability. We showed previously that stabilized, detyrosinated (Glu) MTs function to localize vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) in fibroblasts. To determine whether tubulin detyrosination or MT stability is the critical element in the preferential association of IFs with Glu MTs, we microinjected nonpolymerizable Glu tubulin into cells. If detyrosination is critical, then soluble Glu tubulin should be a competitive inhibitor of the IF-MT interaction. Before microinjection, Glu tubulin was rendered nonpolymerizable and nontyrosinatable by treatment with iodoacetamide (IAA). Microinjected IAA-Glu tubulin disrupted the interaction of IFs with MTs, as assayed by the collapse of IFs to a perinuclear location, and had no detectable effect on the array of Glu or tyrosinated MTs in cells. Conversely, neither IAA-tyrosinated tubulin nor untreated Glu tubulin, which assembled into MTs, caused collapse of IFs when microinjected. The epitope on Glu tubulin responsible for interfering with the Glu MT-IF interaction was mapped by microinjecting tubulin fragments of ␣-tubulin. The 14-kDa C-terminal fragment of Glu tubulin (␣-C Glu) induced IF collapse, whereas the 36-kDa N-terminal fragment of ␣-tubulin did not alter the IF array. The epitope required more than the detyrosination site at the C terminus, because a short peptide (a 7-mer) mimicking the C terminus of Glu tubulin did not disrupt the IF distribution. We previously showed that kinesin may mediate the interaction of Glu MTs and IFs. In this study we found that kinesin binding to MTs in vitro was inhibited by the same reagents (i.e., IAA-Glu tubulin and ␣-C Glu) that disrupted the IF-Glu MT interaction in vivo. These results demonstrate for the first time that tubulin detyrosination functions as a signal for the recruitment of IFs to MTs via a mechanism that is likely to involve kinesin.
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