Recently, the G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 has been identified as a novel oestrogen receptor (ER). The distribution of the receptor has been thus far mapped only in the rat central nervous system. This study was undertaken to map the distribution of GPR30 in the mouse brain and rodent peripheral tissues. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody against GPR30 revealed high levels of GPR30 immunoreactivity (ir) in the forebrain (e.g. cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus), specific nuclei of the midbrain (e.g. the pontine nuclei and locus coeruleus) and the trigeminal nuclei and cerebellum Purkinje layer of the hindbrain in the adult mouse brain. In the rat and mouse periphery, GPR30-ir was detected in the anterior, intermediate and neural lobe of the pituitary, adrenal medulla, renal pelvis and ovary. In situ hybridisation histochemistry using GPR30 riboprobes, revealed intense hybridisation signal for GPR30 in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, anterior and intermediate lobe of the pituitary, adrenal medulla, renal pelvis and ovary of both rat and mouse. Double immunofluorescence revealed GPR30 was present in both oxytocin and vasopressin neurones of the paraventricular nucleus and SON of the rat and mouse brain. The distribution of GPR30 is distinct from the other traditional ERs and offers an additional way in which oestrogen may mediate its effects in numerous brain regions and endocrine systems in the rodent.
Graphical abstractHighlights► The paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus are regulators of homeostasis. ► Over one hundred G protein-coupled receptors are expressed in each of these nuclei. ► The receptors have many functions including modulating neuropeptide synthesis and release. ► 20–30% of the receptors are ‘orphans’ whose endogenous ligand and function is unknown.
Raised endothelial shear stress is protective against atherosclerosis but such protection may be lost at sites of inflammation. We found that four splice variants of the peptidase inhibitor 16 (PI16) mRNA are among the most highly shear stress regulated transcripts in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), in vitro but that expression is reduced by inflammatory mediators TNFα and IL-1β. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that PI16 is expressed in human coronary endothelium and in a subset of neointimal cells and medial smooth muscle cells. Adenovirus-mediated PI16 overexpression inhibits HCAEC migration and secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Moreover, PI16 inhibits MMP2 in part by binding an exposed peptide loop above the active site. Our results imply that, at high endothelial shear stress, PI16 contributes to inhibition of protease activity; protection that can be reversed during inflammation.
Endothelial dysfunction caused by the combined action of disturbed flow, inflammatory mediators and oxidants derived from cigarette smoke is known to promote coronary atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Conversely, laminar flow protects against endothelial dysfunction, at least in the initial phases of atherogenesis. We studied the effects of TNFα and cigarette smoke extract on human coronary artery endothelial cells under oscillatory, normal laminar and elevated laminar shear stress for a period of 72 hours. We found, firstly, that laminar flow fails to overcome the inflammatory effects of TNFα under these conditions but that cigarette smoke induces an anti-oxidant response that appears to reduce endothelial inflammation. Elevated laminar flow, TNFα and cigarette smoke extract synergise to induce expression of the transcriptional regulator activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which we show by adenovirus driven overexpression, decreases inflammatory gene expression independently of activation of nuclear factor-κB. Our results illustrate the importance of studying endothelial dysfunction in vitro over prolonged periods. They also identify ATF3 as an important protective factor against endothelial dysfunction. Modulation of ATF3 expression may represent a novel approach to modulate proinflammatory gene expression and open new therapeutic avenues to treat proinflammatory diseases.
Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-expressing neurones are abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus and limbic system and are implicated in the regulation of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and stress responses. We investigated the role of the endogenous N/OFQ receptor (NOP) system using the nonpeptidic NOP antagonist, JTC-801 [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxy-methyl)benzamide monohydrochloride], during the HPA axis response to acute physical/psychological stress (60 min of restraint). Although i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) had no significant effect on restraint-induced plasma corticosterone release at 30 or 60 min post-injection, i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) in quiescent rats significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone at the 30-min time-point compared to i.v. vehicle (1% dimethysulphoxide in sterile saline). Central injection of JTC-801 i.c.v. was associated with increased Fos expression in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus 90 min after infusion compared to vehicle control. These findings contrast to the effects of i.c.v. UFP-101, a NOP antagonist that we have previously shown to have no effect on HPA activity in quiescent rats. To determine whether restraint stress was associated with compensatory changes in N/OFQ precursor (ppN/OFQ) or NOP receptor mRNAs, in a separate study, we undertook reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation analysis of ppN/OFQ and NOP transcripts in the brains of male Sprague–Dawley rats. In support of an endogenous role for central N/OFQ in psychological stress, we found that acute restraint significantly decreased preproN/OFQ transcript expression in the hippocampus 2 h after stress compared to unstressed controls. PpN/OFQ mRNA was also reduced in the mediodorsal forebrain 4 h after stress. NOP mRNA was reduced in the hypothalamus 2 h after restraint and at 4 h in mediodorsal forebrain and hippocampus. In situ hybridisation analysis showed that acute restraint significantly decreased ppNN/OFQ in the central amygdala, with significantly increased expression in bed nucleus and reticular thalamus associated with repeated restraint. There was a strong trend for reduced NOP mRNA in the bed nucleus of acute and repeated restraint groups, although there were no other significant changes seen. Although the exact mechanisms require elucidation, the findings obtained in the present study provide evidence indicating that the endogenous N/OFQ system is involved in both acute and chronic restraint stress responses. In summary, our findings confirm the significant role of endogenous NOP receptors and tonic N/OFQ function in the response to the psychological stress of restraint.
The area postrema (AP) is a sensory circumventricular organ characterized by extensive fenestrated vasculature and neurons which are capable of detecting circulating signals of osmotic, cardiovascular, immune and metabolic status. The AP can communicate these messages via efferent projections to brainstem and hypothalamic structures that are able to orchestrate an appropriate response. We have used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the AP in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar-Kyoto rat and present here a comprehensive catalogue of gene expression, focusing specifically on the population of ion channels, receptors and G proteincoupled receptors expressed in this sensory tissue; of the G protein-coupled receptors expressed in the rat AP, we identified ∼36% that are orphans, having no established ligand. We have also looked at the ways in which the AP transcriptome responds to the physiological stressors of 72 h dehydration (DSD) and 48 h fasting (FSD) and have performed microarrays in these conditions. Comparison between the DSD and SD or between FSD and SD revealed only a modest number of AP genes that are regulated by these homeostatic challenges. The expression levels of a much larger number of genes are altered in the spontaneously hypertensive rat AP compared with the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto control rat, however. Finally, analysis of these 'hypertensionrelated' elements revealed genes that are involved in the regulation of both blood pressure and immune function and as such are excellent targets for further study.
We tested the hypothesis that mouse ATC1 and ATC7 cells, the first adrenocortical cell lines to exhibit a complete zona fasciculata (ZF) cell phenotype, respond to dynamic ACTH stimulation in a similar manner as the adrenal gland in vivo . Exploiting our previous in vivo observations that gene transcription within the steroidogenic pathway is dynamically regulated in response to a pulse of ACTH, we exposed ATC1 and ATC7 cells to various patterns of ACTH, including pulsatile and constant, and measured the transcriptional activation of this pathway. We show that pulses of ACTH administered to ATC7 cells can reliably stimulate a pulsatile pattern of transcriptional activity that is comparable to that observed in adrenal ZF cells in vivo . Hourly pulses of ACTH stimulate dynamic increases in CREB phosphorylation (pCREB) and transcription of genes involved in critical steps of steroidogenesis including signal transduction ( e.g., MRAP), cholesterol delivery ( e.g., StAR), and steroid biosynthesis ( e.g., CYP11A1), as well as those relating to transcriptional regulation of steroidogenic factors ( e.g., SF-1 and Nur-77). In contrast, constant ACTH stimulation results in a prolonged and exaggerated pCREB and steroidogenic gene transcriptional response. We also show that when a large dose of ACTH (100 nM) is applied after these treatment regimens, a significant increase in steroidogenic transcriptional responsiveness is achieved only in cells that have been exposed to pulsatile, rather than constant, ACTH. Our data support our in vivo observations that pulsatile ACTH is important for the optimal transcriptional responsiveness of the adrenal. Importantly, our data suggest that ATC7 cells respond to dynamic ACTH stimulation.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers