BackgroundE-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation.ObjectivesTo investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation.Data SourcesA systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases.MethodsPublished studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated.ResultsSix studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used.LimitationsIncluded studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis.ConclusionsUse of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More randomised controlled trials are needed to assess effectiveness against other cessation methods.
Our family-oriented program improved patients' self-efficacy and self-management, which in turn could decrease HbA1c levels.
BackgroundDuring the last decade the resistance rate of urinary Escherichia coli (E. coli) to fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin has increased. Systematic reviews of studies investigating ciprofloxacin resistance in community- and hospital-acquired E. coli urinary tract infections (UTI) are absent. This study systematically reviewed the literature and where appropriate, meta-analysed studies investigating ciprofloxacin resistance in community- and hospital-acquired E. coli UTIs.MethodsObservational studies published between 2004 and 2014 were identified through Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus and Cinahl searches. Overall and sub-group pooled estimates of ciprofloxacin resistance were evaluated using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models. The I2 statistic was calculated to demonstrate the degree of heterogeneity. Risk of bias among included studies was also investigated.ResultsOf the identified 1134 papers, 53 were eligible for inclusion, providing 54 studies for analysis with one paper presenting both community and hospital studies. Compared to the community setting, resistance to ciprofloxacin was significantly higher in the hospital setting (pooled resistance 0.38, 95 % CI 0.36-0.41 versus 0.27, 95 % CI 0.24-0.31 in community-acquired UTIs, P < 0.001). Resistance significantly varied by region and country with the highest resistance observed in developing countries. Similarly, a significant rise in resistance over time was seen in studies reporting on community-acquired E. coli UTI.ConclusionsCiprofloxacin resistance in E. coli UTI is increasing and the use of this antimicrobial agent as empirical therapy for UTI should be reconsidered. Policy restrictions on ciprofloxacin use should be enhanced especially in developing countries without current regulations.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12879-015-1282-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The early survival advantage in the intensive care unit suggests a window of critical opportunity for these patients. Under economic constraints and dearth of intensive care unit beds, increasing the turnover of patients in the intensive care unit, thus exposing more needy patients to the early benefit of treatment in the intensive care unit, may be advantageous.
BackgroundAdoption of contemporary evidence-based guidelines for acute stroke management is often delayed due to a range of key enablers and barriers. Recent reviews on such barriers focus mainly on specific acute stroke therapies or generalised stroke care guidelines. This review examined the overall barriers and enablers, as perceived by health professionals which affect how evidence-based practice guidelines (stroke unit care, thrombolysis administration, aspirin usage and decompressive surgery) for acute stroke care are adopted in hospital settings.MethodologyA systematic search of databases was conducted using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database from 1990 to 2016. The population of interest included health professionals working clinically or in roles responsible for acute stroke care. There were no restrictions to the study designs. A quality appraisal tool for qualitative studies by the Joanna Briggs Institute and another for quantitative studies by the Centre for Evidence-Based Management were used in the present study. A recent checklist to classify barriers and enablers to health professionals’ adherence to evidence-based practice was also used.ResultsTen studies met the inclusion criteria out of a total of 9832 search results. The main barriers or enablers identified included poor organisational or institutional level support, health professionals’ limited skills or competence to use a particular therapy, low level of awareness, familiarity or confidence in the effectiveness of a particular evidence-based therapy, limited medical facilities to support evidence uptake, inadequate peer support among health professionals’, complex nature of some stroke care therapies or guidelines and patient level barriers.ConclusionsDespite considerable evidence supporting various specific therapies for stroke care, uptake of these therapies is compromised by barriers across organisational, patients, guideline interventions and health professionals’ domains. As a result, we recommend that future interventions and health policy directions should be informed by these findings in order to optimise uptake of best practice acute stroke care. Further studies from low- to middle-income countries are needed to understand the barriers and enablers in such settings.Trial registrationThe review protocol was registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews, PROSPERO 2015 (Registration Number: CRD42015023481)Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13012-017-0599-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Human microbiomes are predicted to assemble in a reproducible and ordered manner yet there is limited knowledge on the development of the complex bacterial communities that constitute the oral microbiome. The oral microbiome plays major roles in many oral diseases including early childhood caries (ECC), which afflicts up to 70% of children in some countries. Saliva contains oral bacteria that are indicative of the whole oral microbiome and may have the ability to reflect the dysbiosis in supragingival plaque communities that initiates the clinical manifestations of ECC. The aim of this study was to determine the assembly of the oral microbiome during the first four years of life and compare it with the clinical development of ECC. The oral microbiomes of 134 children enrolled in a birth cohort study were determined at six ages between two months and four years-of-age and their mother’s oral microbiome was determined at a single time point. We identified and quantified 356 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of bacteria in saliva by sequencing the V4 region of the bacterial 16S RNA genes. Bacterial alpha diversity increased from a mean of 31 OTUs in the saliva of infants at 1.9 months-of-age to 84 OTUs at 39 months-of-age. The oral microbiome showed a distinct shift in composition as the children matured. The microbiome data were compared with the clinical development of ECC in the cohort at 39, 48, and 60 months-of-age as determined by ICDAS-II assessment. Streptococcus mutans was the most discriminatory oral bacterial species between health and current disease, with an increased abundance in disease. Overall our study demonstrates an ordered temporal development of the oral microbiome, describes a limited core oral microbiome and indicates that saliva testing of infants may help predict ECC risk.
Only a small proportion of eligible patients reach the intensive care unit, and early admission is imperative for their survival advantage. As intensive care unit benefit was most pronounced among those deteriorating on hospital wards, intensive care unit triage decisions should be targeted at maximizing intensive care unit benefit by early admitting patients deteriorating on hospital wards.
ObjectiveDespite major advances in research on acute stroke care interventions, relatively few stroke patients benefit from evidence-based care due to multiple barriers. Yet current evidence of such barriers is predominantly from high-income countries. This study seeks to understand stroke care professionals’ views on the barriers which hinder the provision of optimal acute stroke care in Ghanaian hospital settings.DesignA qualitative approach using semistructured interviews. Both thematic and grounded theory approaches were used to analyse and interpret the data through a synthesis of preidentified and emergent themes.SettingA multisite study, conducted in six major referral acute hospital settings (three teaching and three non-teaching regional hospitals) in Ghana.ParticipantsA total of 40 participants comprising neurologists, emergency physician specialists, non-specialist medical doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical psychologists and a dietitian.ResultsFour key barriers and 12 subthemes of barriers were identified. These include barriers at the patient (financial constraints, delays, sociocultural or religious practices, discharge against medical advice, denial of stroke), health system (inadequate medical facilities, lack of stroke care protocol, limited staff numbers, inadequate staff development opportunities), health professionals (poor collaboration, limited knowledge of stroke care interventions) and broader national health policy (lack of political will) levels. Perceived barriers varied across health professional disciplines and hospitals.ConclusionBarriers from low/middle-income countries differ substantially from those in high-income countries. For evidence-based acute stroke care in low/middle-income countries such as Ghana, health policy-makers and hospital managers need to consider the contrasts and uniqueness in these barriers in designing quality improvement interventions to optimise patient outcomes.
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