Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of exudative maculopathy in Asians as against Wet age-related macular degeneration in Caucasians. A panel of retinal experts methodically evaluated pertinent updated literature on PCV with thorough PubMed/MEDLINE search. Based on this, the panel agreed upon and proposed the current consensus recommendations in the diagnosis (clinical and imaging), management and follow-up schedule of PCV. Diagnosis of PCV should be based on the gold standard indocyanine green angiography which demonstrates early nodular hyperfluorescence signifying the polyp with additional features such as abnormal vascular network (AVN). Optical coherence tomography is an excellent adjuvant for diagnosing PCV, monitoring disease activity, and decision-making regarding the treatment. Current treatment modalities for PCV include photodynamic therapy, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, and thermal laser. Choice of specific treatment modality and prognosis depends on multiple factors such as the location and size of PCV lesion, presence or absence of polyp with residual AVN, amount of submacular hemorrhage, presence or absence of leakage on fundus fluorescein angiography, visual acuity, and so on. Current recommendations would be invaluable for the treating physician in diagnosing PCV and in formulating the best possible individualized treatment strategy for optimal outcomes in PCV management.
The coexistence of PCV with typical CSC-like active leaks and a thick choroid in the same eye simultaneously provides strong evidence that these diseases have an association and support the hypothesis that these conditions may originate from predisposed thick choroid.
Non-CME macular cysts in retinal dystrophies can be differentiated from CME by a combination of clinical examination, IVFA, and molecular genetic testing to identify causative phenotype. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may be effective in promoting resolution.
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), the fourth most common nonsurgical retinopathy with a usual self-limiting course, is known to present with persistent or recurrent form with distressing visual loss. Evolution of newer mutimodal imaging techniques have revolutionized the understanding about the pathophysiology of CSC, and hence the diagnosis and management. Multifactorial etiopathology of CSC promotes the use of multiple treatment modalities. With advances in investigative options, treatment options including conventional focal laser, micropulse laser, photodynamic therapy, and transpupillary thermotherapy are also advancing and refining. Medical management for CSC is also under evaluation with a wide spectrum of new drugs in vogue. However, standard of treatment is yet to be established through randomized clinical trials. This review article discusses the current approach to multimodal treatment options for CSC including conventional as well as newer therapeutic modalities.
Background:There is no proven effective treatment for vision loss in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Bevacizumab has been reported in small series with limited follow-up, to have a positive effect in reducing cystoid macular edema (CME) and improving vision in CRVO.Purpose:To report long-term results with the use of bevacizumab in CRVO.Materials and Methods:Prospective interventional case series included 15 patients, serially evaluated with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography, and tonometry. Results were statistically analyzed.Results:Mean follow-up was 12 ± 3.6 months (range, 6–18 months); mean number of injections was 2.2 (range, 1–4) per patient. Statistically significant reduction of macular thickness (P < 0.001) was seen at six weeks (mean, 346 μ); three months (mean, 353 μ); six months (mean, 348 μ); and final follow-up (mean, 342 μ). Significant BCVA improvement was seen at six weeks (mean, 0.27 logMAR), three months (mean, 0.3 logMAR), three months (0.15 logMAR), and final follow-up (mean, 0.21 logMAR) (P = 0.009). Also, 73.3% patients had BCVA improvement at the last follow-up.Conclusion:Intravitreal bevacizumab is an effective treatment option for CME in CRVO patients. Reinjections at appropriate timing, based on the OCT findings, are important for better visual outcome.
A 12-year-old boy presented with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 6/9 in both eyes following an episode of electric shock. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed disruption of the ellipsoid zone as well as retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) showed increased central hypoautofluorescence in both eyes. At 3-month follow-up, BCVA improved to 6/6 with OCT showing spontaneous resolution of maculopathy in both eyes with reorganized RPE layer and ellipsoid zone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral electric shock maculopathy (ESM) with spontaneous anatomical as well as functional recovery. Ophthalmologists must be aware of various forms of ESM. OCT and FAF must be done in patients presenting with defective vision and history of electric shock for the diagnostic as well as prognostic evaluation.
An 18-year-old boy with an obsessive–compulsive disorder of eye rubbing presented with forme fruste keratoconus (KC) and posterior subcapsular cataracts. After evaluation, he underwent phacoemulsification in his left eye with intraocular lens implantation. The aggressive eye rubbing, however, aggravated the rapid progression to established KC, and further acute corneal hydrops within 3 months. Within the next 3 months, the eye rubbing precipitated rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RDs) in both eyes. Furthermore, after undergoing a combined cataract and RD surgery with belt buckling and silicone oil endotamponade in his right eye, the repeated eye rubbing caused extrusion of the implanted silicone oil into the subconjunctival space and within the corneal stroma. This is the first report to our knowledge describing this unique complication associated with eye rubbing. It also highlights the need for increased vigilance and care that needs to be directed toward patients predisposed to such complications.
Aim: To describe the multimodal imaging findings of pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy. Methods: A 23-year-old female presented to us for a routine ocular examination. She had a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 in both eyes. Anterior segment examination was unremarkable. Fundus examination showed pigmentary changes along the retinal vasculature extending from mid periphery to post-equatorial retina suggesting a diagnosis of pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy. Swept-source optical coherence tomography of the macula showed choriocapillaris thinning at the mid periphery whereas coherence tomography angiography at the mid periphery showed a relatively normal choriocapillaris vasculature in the early stage of the disease. Conclusion: A relatively normal choriocapillaris structure was seen on ocular coherence tomography angiography which could have been due to a milder form of the disease in a young patient.
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