Large colorectal liver metastases can be effectively treated by stereotactic radiofrequency ablation (SRFA). Using SRFA the overall survival is not affected by tumour size. SRFA achieves similar overall and disease-free survival rates as surgical resection. SRFA challenges surgical resection as the first-line treatment for colorectal liver metastases.
BackgroundPreclinical studies demonstrate synergism between cancer immunotherapy and local radiation, enhancing anti-tumor effects and promoting immune responses. BI1361849 (CV9202) is an active cancer immunotherapeutic comprising protamine-formulated, sequence-optimized mRNA encoding six non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-associated antigens (NY-ESO-1, MAGE-C1, MAGE-C2, survivin, 5T4, and MUC-1), intended to induce targeted immune responses.MethodsWe describe a phase Ib clinical trial evaluating treatment with BI1361849 combined with local radiation in 26 stage IV NSCLC patients with partial response (PR)/stable disease (SD) after standard first-line therapy. Patients were stratified into three strata (1: non-squamous NSCLC, no epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, PR/SD after ≥4 cycles of platinum- and pemetrexed-based treatment [n = 16]; 2: squamous NSCLC, PR/SD after ≥4 cycles of platinum-based and non-platinum compound treatment [n = 8]; 3: non-squamous NSCLC, EGFR mutation, PR/SD after ≥3 and ≤ 6 months EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment [n = 2]). Patients received intradermal BI1361849, local radiation (4 × 5 Gy), then BI1361849 until disease progression. Strata 1 and 3 also had maintenance pemetrexed or continued EGFR-TKI therapy, respectively. The primary endpoint was evaluation of safety; secondary objectives included assessment of clinical efficacy (every 6 weeks during treatment) and of immune response (on Days 1 [baseline], 19 and 61).ResultsStudy treatment was well tolerated; injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms were the most common BI1361849-related adverse events. Three patients had grade 3 BI1361849-related adverse events (fatigue, pyrexia); there was one grade 3 radiation-related event (dysphagia). In comparison to baseline, immunomonitoring revealed increased BI1361849 antigen-specific immune responses in the majority of patients (84%), whereby antigen-specific antibody levels were increased in 80% and functional T cells in 40% of patients, and involvement of multiple antigen specificities was evident in 52% of patients. One patient had a partial response in combination with pemetrexed maintenance, and 46.2% achieved stable disease as best overall response. Best overall response was SD in 57.7% for target lesions.ConclusionThe results support further investigation of mRNA-based immunotherapy in NSCLC including combinations with immune checkpoint inhibitors.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01915524.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40425-019-0520-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Background:Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed at an advanced disease stage and predominantly receive palliative treatment, which increasingly consists of several chemotherapy lines. We report on patients' quality of life (QOL) to gain knowledge on QOL during and across multiple lines of chemotherapy. This includes patients with (neo)adjuvant therapy up to 3rd or above line palliative chemotherapy.Methods:Lung cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy at the Kufstein County Hospital completed an electronic version of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis.Results:One hundred and eighty seven patients were included in the study. Surprisingly, irrespective of the chemotherapy line patients reported stable QOL scores during treatment. None of the calculated monthly change rates attained clinical significance, referring to established guidelines that classify a small clinical meaningful change as 5 to 10 points. According to treatment line, 3rd or above line palliative chemotherapy was associated with the worst QOL scores, whereas patients undergoing (neo)adjuvant or 1st line palliative chemotherapy reported fairly comparable QOL.Conclusion:The essential finding of our study is that all QOL aspects of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire remained unchanged during each chemotherapy line in an unselected population of lung cancer patients. Between treatment lines pronounced differences were found, indicating that later palliative chemotherapy lines are associated with higher QOL impairments. These changes in QOL may not primarily be related to the treatment, but rather refer to impairments due to disease progression and may be partly due to a consequence of the prior therapies.
The gene of the leukocyte-specific transcript (LST1) is encoded within the TNF region of the human MHC. The LST1 gene is constitutively expressed in leukocytes and dendritic cells, and it is characterized by extensive alternative splicing. We identified 7 different LST1 splice variants in PBMC; thus, 14 LST1 splice variants (LST1/A-LST1/N) have been detected in various cell types. These isoforms code for transmembrane as well as soluble LST1 proteins characterized by two alternative open reading frames at their 3′ end. We demonstrate the presence of the transmembrane variant LST1/C on the cell surface of the monocytic cell lines U937 and THP1. Recombinant expression of LST1/C permitted its profound inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation to be observed. In contrast, the alternative transmembrane variant LST1/A, the extracellular domain of which shows no amino acid sequence homology to LST1/C exerted a weaker but similar inhibitory effect on PBMC. These data demonstrate the protein expression of LST1 on the cell surface of mononuclear cells, and they show an inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation of two LST1 proteins although they have only a very short amino acid homology.
Summary.To better understand the phenomenon of Pglycoprotein (P-170) expression we investigated lymphocyte subpopulations for P-170 function in healthy volunteers. Studies were based on three-colour flow cytometry including the fluorescent probe rhodamine 123 (Rh123), which is transported by P-170. Marked Rh123 efflux was detected in CD8 þ T lymphocytes with CD8 þ /CD45RA þ T cells (naive cells) showing significantly higher P-170 activity as compared with CD8
cells (memory cells) demonstrated less P-170 activity than CD8þ /CD45RO ¹ cells (P < 0·04). P-170 function was less prominent in CD4 þ T cells, however, Rh123 efflux was higher in the CD4 þ /CD45RA þ and CD4 þ / CD45RO ¹ subpopulations (P < 0·025) corresponding to the CD8 þ results. Dye efflux differed significantly between activated and non-activated CD8 þ and CD4 þ as well as CD8 þ /CD11b þ and CD8 þ /CD11b ¹ T lymphocytes. Since CD16 þ natural killer cells (NK) expressed the highest level of P-170, the NK cytotoxicity against 51 Cr-labelled K562 target cells was assayed in the presence or absence of P-170 inhibitors. NK related cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of R-verapamil and dexnigaldipine-HCP in a dose-dependent manner.The differential expression of P-170 activity in naive and memory T cells together with the reduced NK related cytotoxicity in the presence of MDR-modulators suggest a physiological role of P-170 in immunological functions of these lymphocyte subsets. Consequently, the addition of MDR modulators to conventional chemotherapy as a strategy to overcome drug resistance should consider possible adverse immunosuppressive effects.
BackgroundIn patients with cancers of the pancreatic and biliary tract quality of life (QOL) improvement is the main treatment goal, since survival can be prolonged only marginally. Up to date, knowledge on QOL impairments throughout the entire treatment process, often including several chemotherapy lines, is scarce. Our study aimed at investigating QOL trajectories from adjuvant treatment to palliative 3rd-line therapyMethodsPatients were included in routine electronic patient-reported outcome monitoring at Kufstein County Hospital at the time of diagnosis and assessed with the EORTC QLQ-C30 during each chemotherapy cycle.ResultsEighty out of 147 patients with pancreatic cancer or cancer of the bile ducts treated at the Kufstein County Hospital, fulfilled inclusion criteria and could be included in the study (mean age 67.4 years; 53.8% women). Physical, Emotional and Cognitive Functioning, and Global QOL deteriorated across chemotherapy lines, whereas Fatigue, Pain, Dyspnoea, Sleeping Disturbances, Diarrhoea, and Taste Alterations increased. With regard to Physical Functioning, Global QOL, Fatigue, Dyspnoea, Diarrhoea and Taste Alterations, the patients receiving adjuvant or 1st-line palliative chemotherapy did not differ significantly. Most patients in 2nd- or 3rd-line chemotherapy showed significantly higher impairments and symptom burden. However, patients under 1st and 2nd-line treatment showed stable QOL trajectories, whereas 3rd-line patients perceived substantial deteriorations.ConclusionsThe results suggest early palliative treatment initiation to stabilise QOL on a level as high as possible. The continuous QOL improvement during adjuvant treatment, probably reflecting post-operative recovery, may indicate that deleterious effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on QOL are highly unlikely.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.