While rail transport is growing for medium-distance journeys, the first and last miles are travelled by road, marking a change of transport mode in inland terminals (ITs). Moreover, the introduction of ITs in seaport hinterlands is increasing with a view to decongesting ports, and the best transport mode to connect these ITs with ports is that of rail.In 2013, chemicals were involved in 48 rail accidents in the EU-28 and in 667 in the United States (US). An appropriate design for the layout of inland terminals for containers with dangerous goods (ITDGs) involved in the rail system will increase the safety and operability of rail transport, avoiding accidents such as Tianjin (2015).The novelty of this work is a methodology to design the layout of ITDGs involved in rail transport through a hierarchy of container handling equipment (CHE), used in the yard of the terminal for a safer, more resilient and more environmentally friendly rail transport.The AHP (analytic hierarchy process) was used to hierarchize five alternative layouts, one for each CHE used in the yard; and according to criteria belonging to three areas: safety and security, environment and equipment performance. Results show that a layout linked to platforms is the preferred alternative for storing containers with dangerous goods (DGs) in ITs connected to railways.The implementation of this methodology will reduce consequences in the case of a serious accident in, or terrorist attack on, ITDGs involved in the rail system and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the terminal. a key role in diminishing the pressure on the inland segment of freight distribution. This will reduce traffic, risk, and associated environmental impacts in regions surrounding ports and may become a relevant element of the supply chain. This is especially true due to the high costs for companies and legal requirements involved in seaport facilities. The mode of transport (road, barge or rail) used to access the hinterland from the seaport will depend on the distance between them, their availability, the costs and the quality of the service (e.g. transit times). The use of rail transport, from a cost perspective, is the most competitive in distant terminals (more than 300 km). However, rail has also been used for close (less than 100 km) and mid-range terminals to
Maritime transport in the European Union has increased in the last years, triggering congestion in many of the most important sea and river ports. A lot of works have highlighted how the connection between these ports and dry ports can contribute to reducing port congestion and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This work aims to improve the knowledge about the functionalities of Terminal Operating Systems (TOSs) managing container terminals of sea, river, and dry ports, with the aim of improving their performance and contributing to reducing congestion and GHG emissions to achieve a higher sustainability. The contribution and novelty of this paper in the field of container-terminals logistics research is the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to identify and hierarchize TOS functionalities. The robustness of the model was checked by applying a sensitivity analysis. One hundred and seven functionalities were grouped into six main clusters: Warehouse, Maritime Operations, Gate, Master Data, Communications, and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) Dashboard. The results show that time tracking of vessels, space optimization, development of loading and unloading lists, and optimization of container locations are the most important functionalities of a TOS. This work is addressed to developers, sellers, managers, and users of TOSs and researchers working on container-terminal performance.
Disaster prevention from the earliest stages of inland terminals for dangerous goods (ITDGs) design. Holistic analysis of the criteria involved in the design of safe ITDGs. Diminishment of safety risks associated with ITDGs into a total performance management (safety, environmental and productivity). Assessment tool for the total safety management of ITDGs. Improving the social inclusivity of seaports by using the ITDG concept as a safe option.
The increased number of transports with dangerous goods (TDG) increases the risk of both accidents and terrorist attacks. Digitalisation is crucial in order to avoid human errors and to increase safety, security and efficiency, however there are few research studies that analyse digitalisation for the TDG, this being the first time, to the author's knowledge, that barriers to the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) solutions for the transport of dangerous goods has been analysed. A new elicitation methodology called the 'implementation acceleration methodology for ICT (IAM-ICT)' has been created, with the aim of identifying and hierarchizing potential barriers to the implementation and integration of ICT solutions involved in the multimodal TDG, and with a view to overcoming the most relevant problems at an early stage. This methodology combines user-driven innovation (UDI), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Bayesian networks. The application of this methodology, which is easily replicable in other fields, will enable a better design of ICT solutions so that they can be implemented and integrated in SMEs and large companies. The results show a hierarchy of potential barriers for a multi-modular ICT solution used as use case study, in two different co-designed schemes for a small and medium enterprise (SME) and for a large company.
This work analyzes gendered processes by a methodology based on clustering factors with influence in the decision-making process of women as users or employees of the transport system. Considering gender as a social construction which changes over time and space, this study is based on the concept of a woman as a person who adopts this role in society. This paper performs a deep analysis of those factors women consider as needs and barriers to use or work in the transport system in four scenarios: railway public transport infrastructures, automated vehicles, bicycle sharing, and jobholders. A literature review and focus group discussions were performed under the consideration that the definition of woman includes the addition of several personal characteristics (age, sexual orientation, family responsibilities, and culture). The data analysis allowed the identification of fairness characteristics (FCs) that affect the interaction of women with the transport system for each scenario. A methodology for clustering the fairness characteristics identified the main areas of action to improve the inclusion of women within each use case. Further studies will be focused on the quantification and prioritization of the FCs through mathematical methods and the suggestion of inclusive measures by an interdisciplinary panel.
It is well established that the transport sector is not an equalitarian sector. To develop a sustainable society, a more equalitarian and safe transport system for both users and transport sector employees is needed. This work prioritizes the needs and barriers previously identified as relevant among transport system users and employees for four different transport scenarios (railways, autonomous vehicles (AVs), bicycle-sharing services (BSSs), and employment). The aim of this paper is to prioritize the factors affecting women in these four transport scenarios with the help of a survey followed by the application of mathematical and computational algorithms based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology. The identification of factors with higher influence in the fair participation of women in the transport sector will help transport planners, bike-sharing system owners, decision-makers, transport companies, and regulatory professionals to develop measures that could plausibly increase the proportion of women as users of BSSs, users of rail public transport, and AVs, as well as employees in the transport sector for a sustainable society. The results indicated that safety and security were the most challenging factors for railways. Weather, topography, and family responsibilities were shown to have a high influence on the use of BSSs. In the case of autonomous vehicles, the simultaneity and trust in the technology are the main opportunities to influence the acceptance of such vehicles. Finally, for transport employment, caring and parenting responsibilities were the factors that had the largest effect. Some differences in priorities were found for different profiles of women.
In the Italian National Strategy for Inner Areas, included in the Partnership Agreement 2014-2020, improving accessibility is one of the priority axes of intervention, either as a lever of territorial cohesion, or a driver of economic development. Therefore, the presence of a railway line, even if underused or abandoned, may represent for these areas a strategic asset to activate revitalization processes, through the integration of regional and mobility policies. Good practices demonstrate how innovative management models in rail service, together with an approach to regional planning oriented to public transport, may have significant multiplier effects on the demand side. On this basis, the paper presents two project researches for inner areas in Tuscany, both characterized by the presence of an old railroad now in decline, whose "smart" reuse is the key element for a "territory project" aimed at the enhancement of the local conspicuous territorial capital.
Previous studies have highlighted inequalities and gender differences in the transport system. Some factors or fairness characteristics (FCs) strongly influence gender fairness in the transport system. The difference with previous studies, which focus on general concepts, is the incorporation of level 3 FCs, which are more detailed aspects or measures that can be implemented by companies or infrastructure managers and operators in order to increase fairness and inclusion in each use case. The aim of this paper is to find computational solutions, Bayesian networks, and analytic hierarchy processes capable of hierarchizing level 3 FCs and to predict by simulation their values in the case of applying some improvements. This methodology was applied to data from women in four use cases: railway transport, autonomous vehicles, bicycle sharing stations, and transport employment. The results showed that fairer railway transport requires increased personal space, hospitality rooms, help points, and helpline numbers. For autonomous vehicles, the perception of safety, security, and sustainability should be increased. The priorities for bicycle sharing stations are safer cycling paths avoiding hilly terrains and introducing electric bicycles, child seats, or trailers to carry cargo. In transport employment, the priorities are fair recruitment and promotion processes and the development of family-friendly policies.
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