Cadmium (Cd) exposure can induce acute lethal health-related threats to humans since it has an exceptional ability to accumulate in living organisms and cause toxicological effects. Curcumin (Cur) on the other hand has a wide variety of biological activities and several animal studies have suggested for a potential therapeutic or preventive effects against several ailments and infections. To study the effect of Cur on the toxicity of Cd, sixty Swiss-Webster strain male mice were divided into 6 groups of ten each at random. Group-1 served as the na?ve control and received no treatment. Group-2, 3 and 4 were the experimental controls and were administered once a day with a single oral doseof 50% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO),Cur (300 mg/kg) or Cd (100 mg/kg) respectively, for 2 weeks. Group-5 and 6 received Cur and Cd in combination once a day orally for 2 weeks except that Cur in a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg to group 5 and 6 respectively, was administered one hour before Cd (100 mg/kg) administration to both groups. After treatment period, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests and thereafter, the animals were sacrificed for the estimation of neurotransmitters like serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and it’s metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) as well as oxidative stress enzymes like lipid peroxides in the form of thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (GSH) in the forebrain tissue. Cd reduced significantly the body weight gain, the locomotor activity, anxiety behavior in the plus maze and the learning capability (cognitive effect) in the shuttle-box test. Biochemical analysis further revealed that Cd exposure significantly altered the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress enzymes. However, administration of Cur along with Cd had an ameliorating effect on all the behavioral and biochemical parameters studied herein and reduced the toxicity of Cd significantly and dose-dependently. Thus, Cur may be beneficial for anxiety, neuromuscular, and cognitive problems and protect from Cd intoxication.
The present data indicate that status epilepticus (SE) induced in adult rats is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and cerebral oxidative stress (OS). This has been demonstrated using lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc) model of SE. OS occurring in hippocampus and striatum of mature brain following SE is apparently due to both the increased free radicals production and the limited antioxidant defense. Pronounced alterations were noticed in the enzymatic, glutathione-S transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as in the nonenzymatic; thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GST), indices of OS in the hippocampus and striatum of SE induced animals. Quinacrine (Qcn), proglumide (Pgm), and pentoxifylline (Ptx) administered to animals before inducing SE, were significantly effective in ameliorating the seizure activities, cognitive dysfunctions, and cerebral OS. The findings suggest that all the drugs were effective in the order of Ptx < Pgm < Qcn indicating that these drugs are potentially antiepileptic as well as antioxidant; however, further studies are needed to establish this fact. It can be assumed that these antiepileptic substances with antioxidant properties combined with conventional therapies might provide a beneficial effect in treatment of epilepsy through ameliorating the cerebral OS.
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