BackgroundLeishmaniosis, zoonosis that produces significant public health impacts, is caused by Leishmania infantum. Canines are the main domestic reservoir and, besides humans, other species of mammals could be infected when living in endemic areas. In this study, we detected equine Leishmania infantum infections in a canine visceral leishmaniosis transmission area and evaluated the clinical, haematological, biochemical and oxidative stress disorders. This study was conducted in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul, south of Brazil. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 124 animals (98 horses and 26 dogs) of both genders and several breeds after they underwent general and dermatologic examinations.ResultsTwenty five Leishmania infantum infected animals (20.16%), 14 horses and 11 dogs were detected by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplification of kinetoplast DNA regions with 96% homology to Leishmania infantum (GenBank Accession No. L 19877.1). The clinical and haematological alterations of infected equines were skin lesions, nodules, lymphadenopathy, decreased levels in red blood cells and haematocrit (p < 0.05) and increase in urea serum concentration (p < 0.05), while CVL presented a decrease in red blood cells counts (p < 0.05), increase in lymphocytes (p < 0.05), and decrease in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress markers of plasma protein carbonyl and plasma lipid peroxidation were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) in both species.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this has been the first leishmaniosis equine survey performed in south of Brazil, caused by Leishmania infantum that were able to initially identify haematological and biochemical changes in the species, even in asymptomatic animals. We present evidence supporting those findings of haematological and biochemical changes could be related to infection. Surprisingly, the clinical manifestations of equine infection were similar to those found in canine visceral leishmaniosis. The equine population could be play an important role in the cycle of leishmaniosis in south Brazil and consequently indicates a great risk of public health. This evaluation of infected animals is important to establish the clinical and laboratory parameters involved in the disease progression.
The present study aimed to evaluate factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in areas with higher seroprevalence of it in Uruguaiana city, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, during the year of 2012. A semi-structured questionnaire with socioeconomic and environmental questions was applied in Leishmania endemic regions of the city. The survey data were analyzed by multivariate statistics and the associations between them were presented as odds ratio within a 95% confidence limit. The relationships between the studied variables showed no statistically significant difference between the dwellings with positive and negative dogs. However, when analyzing the odds ratio, the presence of green areas larger than 10m² turned the house into an area of potential risk for CVL (OR= 2.53). There was no difference among the socioeconomic variables education and income, though the groups with lower education and income showed a higher seroprevalence of CVL. The city of Uruguaiana is already located within the CVL broadcasting area and is taken as an endemic region of the disease, with seropositive dogs in all neighborhoods. Thus, the determinants for an increased Leishmania sp. infection could not be indicated, even so, the maintenance of green areas around the households represented a risk factor for being a potential vector shelter. Key words: Neglected disease. Epidemiology. Environment. Socioeconomic factors. ResumoO objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar potenciais fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) em áreas de maior prevalência no município de Uruguaiana/RS, no ano de 2012. Foram aplicados questionários semiestruturados com questões socioeconômicas e ambientais em bairros endêmicos para LVC no município de Uruguaiana. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise multivariada e as associações entre as variáveis foram expressas em odds ratio com intervalos de confiança de 95%. As relações entre as variáveis estudadas não apresentaram diferença estatística significativa quando se comparou residências com cães positivos àquelas com cães negativos. Entretanto, a presença de área verde maior que 10m² apresentou-se como um potencial fator de risco (OR= 2,53) para LVC. Não houve diferença significativa entre as variáveis socioeconômicas, escolaridade e renda embora, nos grupos de menor escolaridade e de menor renda familiar, tenha havido
The Southern brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans, is one of the largest Neotropical primates. The objective of this study was to describe the origin and antimeric distribution of brachial plexus nerves in A. g. clamitans and, thereby, to provide information for comparative anatomy and for anatomy applied to loco-regional anaesthetic blocking in primates. For this purpose, a macrodissection of 10 thoracic limbs of corpses that were collected from highways was performed, and the corpses were stored in 10% formaldehyde solution. The brachial plexus was essentially formed from the ventral spinal branches of segments C5 to T1, although in one specimen the contribution of C4 and in another specimen the contribution of T2 was registered. There was a grouping of ventral branches in cranial, medium and caudal trunks, and branches of C5 and C7 were the ones that mostly contributed to the origin of nerves from the plexus. Comparatively, the brachial plexus from A. g. clamitans reflected characteristics that are typical in the primate order, but also of mammal species that require versatility and precision in movements of the thoracic limbs. On the basis of that similarity, it is proposed that anatomic landmarks for anaesthetic block techniques used in other primate species may be successfully applied to A. g. clamitans.
Leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by a variety of pathogenic Leishmania species. In the New World, especially in Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania infantum. The pathogen can infect several animal species including dogs, foxes, rodents, primates, felines, equines and humans. Dogs act as the primary domestic reservoirs. This study aimed to use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting Leishmania infection in horses living in a canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) endemic region. DNA samples from horse peripheral blood were used to perform PCR. Templates were amplified using primers for the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles, which were able to detect different species of Leishmania. In addition, primers for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA were used for detection of Trypanosomatidae sp. Amongst the 75 (39%) positive PCR samples from total 192 samples, 21 samples were positive for kDNA and 63 samples were positive for either ITS, ITS1, or ITS2 gene markers. The kDNA PCR and sequencing allowed the detection of L. infantum in horse blood samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of equine infection with L. infantum in Southern Brazil. These results proved that L. infantum could also infect horses in addition to humans and dogs, as well as in European countries. This conclusion emphasizes the urgent need to follow up investigation of the infection in these animals.
Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic zoonotic disease identified especially in developing territories. Brazil's northeast, southeast and midwest have been endemic for several years; currently, the infection is spreading to the south. Dogs are the main reservoirs; however, other mammal species have also been infected. Herein, we have identified the infecting Leishmania species in dogs and horses from the south of Brazil, a new outbreak of the infection. Blood samples were collected in the urban area of Uruguaiana city. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood, kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Out of 123 samples, 25 of them (14 dogs and 11 horses) were positive for Leishmania spp. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the kDNA in positive samples was similar to four species previously reported: L. infantum/L. chagasi, L. donovani, L. major. Despite kDNA minicircles regions are very useful due to high sensitivity to Leishmania spp. DNA detection, the sequence polymorphism among minicircles can be an obstacle to interspecific differentiation. Our results suggest that these strains are circulating in Brazil south region cross‐border and indicate the susceptibility of new outbreak for visceral leishmaniasis infection in horses domiciled in endemic region for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.
Objective The aim of the present study is to assess an arthrographic technique based on the access to the equine tarsus via distal intertarsal and on the existence and frequency of communication between distal and tarsocrural joints in the tarsus of Crioulo horses. Materials and Methods Fifty Crioulo horses of both sexes from 3 to 8 years old were included in the experiment. Animals with radiographic signs of tarsal osteoarthritis and joint space loss were excluded from the experiment. Contrast was injected in the distal intertarsal joint and radiographs were taken at two different times - Time 0 (after contrast application) and Time 1 (45 seconds after) to detect any communication between tarsal joints. The recorded results were analysed through chi-squared test. Results Thirty out of three hundred tarsi were excluded from the experiment since the radiographic images showed loss of the distal intertarsal joint space. Positive contrast was injected in distal intertarsal joint of 70/100 tarsi. There was not any contrast overflow in the 30/70 assessed tarsi. Contrast diffused to the tarsometatarsal joint in 32/70 of the assessed tarsi and reached tarsocrural joints in 8/70 tarsi. The adopted arthrographic technique was effective in data collection and evaluation; however, 52/70 of tarsi showed contrast overflow to the bursa of the cunean tendon. Clinical significance The communication between tarsocrural and distal tarsal joints in Crioulo horses was significantly higher, and this finding emphasizes the importance of performing contrasted arthrography before getting to a final diagnostic and defining therapeutic procedures.
Background: Lameness is one of the main causes of economic losses in sheep breeding, especially in the distal region of the limbs. Poor sanitation management, especially in terms of hygiene conditions and the introduction of animals without previous preventive care, is an important predisposing factor in sheep flocks. Interdigital phlegmon (foot rot) is a bacterial disease that causes pain, heat, edema, hyperemia in the region, and can lead to secondary processes such as osteomyelitis. This case report describes the use of gamithromycin for the treatment of osteomyelitis secondary to foot rot in a sheep.Case: An Ile-de-France ewe exhibiting signs of lameness, pain, heat, hyperemia and edema in the four digits was treated at the Veterinary Hospital of UNIPAMPA. The lesions were characterized by interdigital phlegmon, commonly known as foot rot, and the right thoracic limb was more affected, exuding a foul odor and purulent secretion. The affected limbs were treated topically with an antiseptic solution. The lesions healed completely except for the right thoracic limb, whose clinical condition worsened. Osteitis was suspected, and was confirmed by radiographic evaluation of the region. Treatment with ceftiofur was introduced, but proved to be ineffective. Nevertheless, the lesion was found to have worsened, and a new X-ray evaluation was made, which revealed dislocation of the distal phalanx as well as involvement of the middle and proximal phalanges. Thus, we decided to perform chemical arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint. Before beginning this procedure, contrast X-rays were taken that revealed the development of a fistulous pathway connecting the distal interphalangeal joint to the proximal interphalangeal joint, which precluded this procedure. In view of the worsening of the condition, amputation of the distal and middle phalanges was performed, as well as scraping of the distal edge of the proximal phalanx. In the postoperative period, ceftiofur was used as antibiotic therapy and flunixin meglumine as analgesic, in addition to daily dressings with topical iodine. After this procedure, there was no improvement in lameness and the radiographic images showed worsening of the clinical condition. At this time, the antimicrobial therapy was replaced with tylosin. After beginning treatment with this antimicrobial, there was a slight decrease in lameness, but a fistulous pathway with purulent secretion was formed in the region corresponding to the distal portion of the first phalanx, as well as an increase in the bone lesion, which was observed radiographically. Due to the ineffectiveness of the drug therapy, it was replaced by gamithromycin, which was applied three times. After beginning this treatment, lameness receded and the wound stopped producing purulent secretion, and at the end of the applications of this active ingredient, there was complete resolution of lameness and improvement of the radiographic signs of the animal of this case report.Discussion: Antimicrobial therapy is an important factor in the treatment of interdigital phlegmon and of osteomyelitis, and should be performed properly using broad-spectrum antibiotics. In the case reported here, although antibiotics with those characteristics were used, the active ingredient had to be changed more than once. In this particular case, there was an improvement in the lameness and the wound, and in the radiographic signs of the proximal phalanx, only after the application of gamithromycin. Therefore, this drug can be considered as an alternative for the treatment of osteomyelitis in ruminants, especially in cases unresponsive to treatment with other antibiotics.
The aim of this study was to evaluate through three-dimensional kinematic analysis the influence of occlusal adjustment by tooth wear in masticatory biomechanics of horses. Seven clinically healthy thoroughbred Arabian horses with strong occlusal irregularities were used, of which seven castrated males and one female of between seven and nineteen years of age. Three digital video cameras and seven spherical reflective markers placed on the horses’ face were employed. The animals were filmed twice in succession: while chewing hay before and after the occlusal adjustment by tooth wear. Following that, kinematic analysis was made of the movements obtained by means of the images which were synchronized, segmented and reconstructed three-dimensionally with the help of Dvideow program. Mathematical functions were applied in Matlab environment for obtaining the values of the amplitudes of movements. The results of the biomechanical analysis showed that the occlusal adjustment increases the range of mandibular movements in horses.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.