Nowadays, the predominant technique for the commercial propagation of guava seedlings is through cuttings, using herbaceous cuttings that need a specialized infrastructure with intermittent misting, clean water, exhausters, water filters, and fans. As an alternative to plant propagation by cuttings, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA) on the rooting of branches of the guava cv. Paluma by air-layering. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replications and 10 air layers per plot. The treatments consisted of six concentrations of IBA powder mixed with industrial talcum: 0, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 mg.kg-1. Four adult guava parents that were in the off-season period were used. For the preparation of the air layers, the stems were girdled with a 4.0 cm width, using a steel blade, by removing the bark until exposing the cambium region, followed by IBA application and wrapping of the branches with a plastic bag containing moist organic substrate. The following variables were evaluated 120 days after air-layering: percentage of rooted and callused air layers, longest root length, and root dry matter. The analysis of variance indicated no significant differences between the IBA concentrations for all variables, but the rooting percentages were high (68.6 to 92.2%) regardless of the application of the exogenous auxin.
Cucumber is a vegetable species of high socioeconomic importance, whose fruits are consumed in all Brazilian regions. However, the knowledge of its organic production is still incipient. In this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the productive performance of the Aodai cucumber under organic cultivation in response to the application of biofertilizer via soil and leaves. The experiment was conducted in the Seridó Ecological Site, Rio Branco, AC, by adopting a randomized block design in a 6x2 factorial arrangement, with four replications and eight plants per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of six concentrations of biofertilizer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) diluted in water, applied via foliar spraying, combined with the presence or absence of its pure application in the soil, with both methods applied at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after sowing. The fertilizer was also applied in the soil at sowing. At the end of each harvest, the fruits were divided into two quality categories (classes 1 and 2), and then the following variables were evaluated: number of fruits per plant, mean fruit mass, yield, fruit diameter, and fruit length. There was no significant interaction of the biofertilizer application via foliar spraying or soil for any of the variables. The biofertilizer application via foliar spraying promoted a significant increase in the number of marketable fruits per plant, mean mass of total fruits, and marketable and total yields. The 3% concentration of biofertilizer diluted in water and applied on the leaves is the most efficient method to increment the cucumber yield.
Yellow mombin is a fruit species of growing interest in the agro-industrial sector, mainly in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, although its commercial exploitation is still limited due to the lack of information regarding its propagation, among other factors. In this perspective, this work aimed to study the effect of the application of indolebutyric acid (IBA) in the vegetative propagation of yellow mombin by stem and root cuttings. The experiments were conducted in a plant nursery, under a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg.kg-1 in industrial talc), four replications, and ten cuttings per plot. The stem cutting experiment also evaluated the effect of the types of cuttings (tanchan, basal, stratified basal, medial, and apical), with the material being collected from a yellow mombin tree in full vegetative growth. The root cuttings were collected from a matrix plant in the stage of vegetative rest and cut into 15 cm length segments. After 120 days, the following variables were evaluated: percentage of living, sprouted, rooted, and calloused cuttings, and dry mass of roots and sprouts. The cuttings of the tanchan type showed higher survival and sprouting percentages, regardless of the concentration of IBA applied, whereas the rooting rate was low. The application of IBA increased the rooting percentage of the root cuttings until the maximum concentration of 5000 mg.kg-1, reaching 77.5%, although it did not influence the other variables analyzed. The root cuttings of yellow mombin exhibit good regeneration capacity.
The objectives of the tests were to evaluate concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA) combined with different types of cuttings and grafting methods on the vegetative propagation of cajazeira-dejabuti (S. testudinis). The experiment with stem cuttings was conducted in a greenhouse with an intermittent misting system. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 6 factorial arrangement consisting of five cutting types: apical, medial, basal, stratified, and tanchan, and six IBA concentrations: 0, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 mg kg-1, with four replications of ten cuttings. The experiment with the root cuttings followed a randomized block design composed of six IBA concentrations (0, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, and 5,000 mg kg-1) with four replications, evaluating after 120 days the percentages of live, sprouted, rooted, and calloused cuttings, and the number and dry mass of roots and sprouts. Five grafting methods (chip budding, shield budding, cleft grafting, wedge grafting, and splice grafting) were tested by evaluating the graft success and sprouting percentages at 30 and 60 days after grafting, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. The IBA concentrations of 0, 2,000, 3,000, and 5,000 mg kg-1 increased the number of sprouts in tanchan cuttings. The tanchan cuttings showed the highest survival and percentage of sprouts regardless of the IBA concentration. The IBA concentration of 2,200 mg kg-1 promotes higher rooting rates in root cuttings. Splice grafting provides higher graft success and sprouting rates.
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