Intra-arterial bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation is feasible and safe in patients with nonacute ischemic strokes of the middle cerebral artery. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this therapy.
Building bridges between environmental and political agendas is essential nowadays in face of the increasing human pressure on natural environments, including wetlands. Wetlands provide critical ecosystem services for humanity and can generate a considerable direct or indirect income to the local communities. To meet many of the sustainable development goals, we need to move our trajectory from the current environmental destructive development to a wiser wetland use. The current article contain a proposed agenda for the Pantanal aiming the improvement of public policy for conservation in the Pantanal, one of the largest, most diverse, and continuous inland wetland in the world. We suggest and discuss a list of 11 essential interfaces between science, policy, and development in region linked to the proposed agenda. We believe that a functional science network can booster the collaborative capability to generate creative ideas and solutions to address the big challenges faced by the Pantanal wetland.
Cell-based treatments have been considered a promising therapy for neurological diseases. However, currently there are no clinically available methods to monitor whether the transplanted cells reach and remain in the brain. In this study we investigated the feasibility of detecting the distribution and homing of autologous bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) labeled with Technetium-99 m ((99m)Tc) in a cell-based therapy clinical study for chronic ischemic stroke. Six male patients (ages 24-65 years) with ischemic cerebral infarcts within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) between 59 and 82 days were included. Cell dose ranged from 1.25x10(8) to 5x10(8). Approximately 2x10(7) cells were labeled with (99m)Tc and intra-arterially delivered together with the unlabeled cells via a catheter navigated to the MCA. None of the patients showed any complications on the 120-day follow-up. Whole body scintigraphies indicated cell homing in the brain of all patients at 2 h, while the remaining uptake was mainly distributed to liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys and bladder. Moreover, quantification of uptake in Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) at 2 h showed preferential accumulation of radioactivity in the hemisphere affected by the ischemic infarct in all patients. However, at 24 h homing could only distinguished in the brains of 2 patients, while in all patients uptake was still seen in the other organs. Taken together, these results indicate that labeling of BMMCs with (99m)Tc is a safe and feasible technique that allows monitoring the migration and engraftment of intra-arterially transplanted cells for at least 24 h.
The evolution of stroke care in Brazil over the last decade is a pathway that exemplifies the challenges that middle-income countries have to face in order to improve stroke prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. The reported Brazilian experience can be extrapolated to understand the past, present, and future of stroke care in middle-income countries.
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