Children and adolescents with Crohn's disease (CD) present often with a more complicated disease course compared to adult patients. In addition, the potential impact of CD on growth, pubertal and emotional development of patients underlines the need for a specific management strategy of pediatric-onset CD. To develop the first evidenced based and consensus driven guidelines for pediatric-onset CD an expert panel of 33 IBD specialists was formed after an open call within the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterolog, Hepatology and Nutrition. The aim was to base on a thorough review of existing evidence a state of the art guidance on the medical treatment and long term management of children and adolescents with CD, with individualized treatment algorithms based on a benefit-risk analysis according to different clinical scenarios. In children and adolescents who did not have finished their growth, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the induction therapy of first choice due to its excellent safety profile, preferable over corticosteroids, which are equipotential to induce remission. The majority of patients with pediatric-onset CD require immunomodulator based maintenance therapy. The experts discuss several factors potentially predictive for poor disease outcome (such as severe perianal fistulizing disease, severe stricturing/penetrating disease, severe growth retardation, panenteric disease, persistent severe disease despite adequate induction therapy), which may incite to an anti-TNF-based top down approach. These guidelines are intended to give practical (whenever possible evidence-based) answers to (pediatric) gastroenterologists who take care of children and adolescents with CD; they are not meant to be a rule or legal standard, since many different clinical scenario exist requiring treatment strategies not covered by or different from these guidelines.
Background: The diagnosis of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) can be challenging in choosing the most informative diagnostic tests and correctly classifying PIBD into its different subtypes. Recent advances in our understanding of the natural history and phenotype of PIBD, increasing availability of serological and fecal biomarkers, and the emergence of novel endoscopic and imaging technologies taken together have made the previous Porto criteria for the diagnosis of PIBD obsolete. Methods: We aimed to revise the original Porto criteria using an evidencebased approach and consensus process to yield specific practice recommendations for the diagnosis of PIBD. These revised criteria are based on the Paris classification of PIBD and the original Porto criteria while
Severe type I plasminogen (PLG) deficiency has been causally linked to a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the mucous membranes that may be life threatening. Here we report clinical manifestations, PLG plasma levels, and molecular genetic status of the PLG gene of 50 patients. The most common clinical manifestations among these patients were ligneous conjunctivitis (80%) and ligneous gingivitis (34%), followed by less common manifestations such as ligneous vaginitis (8%), and involvement of the respiratory tract (16%), the ears (14%), or the gastrointestinal tract (2%). Four patients showed congenital occlusive hydrocephalus, 2 with Dandy-Walker malformation of cerebellum. Venous thrombosis was not observed. In all patients, plasma PLG levels were markedly reduced. In 38 patients, distinct mutations in the PLG gene were identified. The most common genetic alteration was a K19E mutation found in 34% of patients. Transient in vitro expression of PLG mutants R134K, delK212, R216H, P285T, P285A, T319_N320insN, and R776H in transfected COS-7 cells revealed significantly impaired secretion and increased degradation of PLG. These results demonstrate impaired secretion of mutant PLG proteins as a common molecular pathomechanism in type I PLG deficiency.
IntroductionPlasminogen (PLG) plays an important role in intra-and extravascular fibrinolysis, wound healing, cell migration, angiogenesis, and embryogenesis. 1 Plg is primarily synthesized by liver tissue. 2 However, other minor sources identified in mice include adrenal gland, kidney, brain, testis, heart, lung, uterus, spleen, thymus, and gut tissue. 3 In humans, the cornea has been described as an extrahepatic site of PLG synthesis. 4 Inherited PLG deficiency in humans can be divided into 2 types: true PLG deficiency (type I, or hypoplasminogenemia) and dysplasminogenemia (type II). In the former, both immunoreactive PLG level and functional activity are reduced, while the latter shows a normal or slightly reduced level of immunoreactive PLG while functional activity is significantly decreased. It has been shown by several authors since 1995 that homozygous or compound-heterozygous type I PLG deficiency is a major cause of a rare inflammatory disease affecting mainly mucous membranes in different body sites. 5,6 The most common clinical manifestation is ligneous conjunctivitis, characterized by development of fibrin-rich, woodlike ("ligneous") pseudomembranous lesions. Involvement of the cornea may result in blindness. Other, less common manifestations are ligneous gingivitis, otitis media, ligneous bronchitis and pneumonia, involvement of the gastrointestinal or female genital tract, juvenile colloid milium of the skin, and congenital occlusive hydrocephalus. 6 In severely affected patients, prognosis is poor and treatment options are few. Worldwide, more than 150 patients with this disease have been reported since 1847, the date of first description. 6,7 From the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; For personal use o...
The gaseous mediator hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is synthesized mainly by cystathionine gammalyase in the heart and plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Here we first overview the state of the art in the literature on the cardioprotective effects of H 2 S in various models of cardiac injury. Subsequently, we present original data showing the beneficial effects of parenteral administration of a donor of H 2 S on myocardial and endothelial function during reperfusion in a canine experimental model of cardiopulmonary bypass. Overview of the literature demonstrates that various formulations of H 2 S exert cardioprotective effects in cultured cells, isolated hearts and various rodent and large animal models of regional or global myocardial ischemia and heart failure. In addition, the production of H 2 S plays a role in myocardial pre-and post-conditioning responses. The pathways implicated in the cardioprotective action of H 2 S are multiple and involve K ATP channels, regulation of mitochondrial respiration, and regulation of cytoprotective genes such as Nrf-2. In the experimental part of the current article, we demonstrate the cardioprotective effects of H 2 S in a canine model of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Anesthetized dogs were subjected hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with 60 minutes of hypothermic cardiac arrest in the presence of either saline (control, n=8), or H 2 S infusion (1 mg/ kg/h for 2 h). Left ventricular hemodynamic variables (via combined pressure-volumeconductance catheter) as well as coronary blood flow, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent vasodilatation to sodium nitroprusside were measured at baseline and after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Ex vivo vascular function and high-energy phosphate contents were also measured. H 2 S led to a significantly better recovery of preload recruitable stroke work (p<0.05) after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Coronary blood flow was also significantly higher in the H 2 S group (p<0.05). While the vasodilatory response to sodium nitroprusside was similar in both groups, acetylcholine resulted in a significantly higher increase in coronary blood flow in the H 2 S-treated group (p<0.05) both in vivo and ex vivo. Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
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NIH-PA Author ManuscriptNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript high-energy phosphate contents were better preserved in the H 2 S group. Additionally, the cytoprotective effects of H 2 S were confirmed also using in vitro cell culture experiments in H9c2 cardiac m...
These guidelines provide clinically useful points to guide the management of UC in children. Taken together, the recommendations offer a standardized protocol that allows effective, timely management and monitoring of the disease course, while acknowledging that each patient is unique.
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