Background & objectives: Population-based seroepidemiological studies measure the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a country. We report the findings of the first round of a national serosurvey, conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adult population of India. Methods: From May 11 to June 4, 2020, a randomly sampled, community-based survey was conducted in 700 villages/wards, selected from the 70 districts of the 21 States of India, categorized into four strata based on the incidence of reported COVID-19 cases. Four hundred adults per district were enrolled from 10 clusters with one adult per household. Serum samples were tested for IgG antibodies using COVID Kavach ELISA kit. All positive serum samples were re-tested using Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 ELISA. Adjusting for survey design and serial test performance, weighted seroprevalence, number of infections, infection to case ratio (ICR) and infection fatality ratio (IFR) were calculated. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with IgG positivity. Results: Total of 30,283 households were visited and 28,000 individuals were enrolled. Population-weighted seroprevalence after adjusting for test performance was 0.73 per cent [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-1.13]. Males, living in urban slums and occupation with high risk of exposure to potentially infected persons were associated with seropositivity. A cumulative 6,468,388 adult infections (95% CI: 3,829,029-11,199,423) were estimated in India by the early May. The overall ICR was between 81.6 (95% CI: 48.3-141.4) and 130.1 (95% CI: 77.0-225.2) with May 11 and May 3, 2020 as plausible reference points for reported cases. The IFR in the surveyed districts from high stratum, where death reporting was more robust, was 11.72 (95% CI: 7.21-19.19) to 15.04 (9.26-24.62) per 10,000 adults, using May 24 and June 1, 2020 as plausible reference points for reported deaths. Interpretation & conclusions: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was low among the adult population in India around the beginning of May 2020. Further national and local serosurveys are recommended to better inform the public health strategy for containment and mitigation of the epidemic in various parts of the country.
Background Malnutrition is a major contributor to disease burden in India. To inform subnational action, we aimed to assess the disease burden due to malnutrition and the trends in its indicators in every state of India in relation to Indian and global nutrition targets. Methods We analysed the disease burden attributable to child and maternal malnutrition, and the trends in the malnutrition indicators from 1990 to 2017 in every state of India using all accessible data from multiple sources, as part of Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. The states were categorised into three groups using their Socio-demographic Index (SDI) calculated by GBD on the basis of per capita income, mean education, and fertility rate in women younger than 25 years. We projected the prevalence of malnutrition indicators for the states of India up to 2030 on the basis of the 1990-2017 trends for comparison with India National Nutrition Mission (NNM) 2022 and WHO and UNICEF 2030 targets. Findings Malnutrition was the predominant risk factor for death in children younger than 5 years of age in every state of India in 2017, accounting for 68•2% (95% UI 65•8-70•7) of the total under-5 deaths, and the leading risk factor for health loss for all ages, responsible for 17•3% (16•3-18•2) of the total disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The malnutrition DALY rate was much higher in the low SDI than in the middle SDI and high SDI state groups. This rate varied 6•8 times between the states in 2017, and was highest in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, and Rajasthan. The prevalence of low birthweight in India in 2017 was 21•4% (20•8-21•9), child stunting 39•3% (38•7-40•1), child wasting 15•7% (15•6-15•9), child underweight 32•7% (32•3-33•1), anaemia in children 59•7% (56•2-63•8), anaemia in women 15-49 years of age 54•4% (53•7-55•2), exclusive breastfeeding 53•3% (51•5-54•9), and child overweight 11•5% (8•5-14•9). If the trends estimated up to 2017 for the indicators in the NNM 2022 continue in India, there would be 8•9% excess prevalence for low birthweight, 9•6% for stunting, 4•8% for underweight, 11•7% for anaemia in children, and 13•8% for anaemia in women relative to the 2022 targets. For the additional indicators in the WHO and UNICEF 2030 targets, the trends up to 2017 would lead to 10•4% excess prevalence for wasting, 14•5% excess prevalence for overweight, and 10•7% less exclusive breastfeeding in 2030. The prevalence of malnutrition indicators, their rates of improvement, and the gaps between projected prevalence and targets vary substantially between the states. Interpretation Malnutrition continues to be the leading risk factor for disease burden in India. It is encouraging that India has set ambitious targets to reduce malnutrition through NNM. The trends up to 2017 indicate that substantially higher rates of improvement will be needed for all malnutrition indicators in most states to achieve the Indian 2022 and the global 2030 targets. The state-specific findings in this report indicate the...
Background The first national severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurvey in India, done in May-June, 2020, among adults aged 18 years or older from 21 states, found a SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody seroprevalence of 0•73% (95% CI 0•34-1•13). We aimed to assess the more recent nationwide seroprevalence in the general population in India. MethodsWe did a second household serosurvey among individuals aged 10 years or older in the same 700 villages or wards within 70 districts in India that were included in the first serosurvey. Individuals aged younger than 10 years and households that did not respond at the time of survey were excluded. Participants were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographics, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, exposure history to laboratoryconfirmed COVID-19 cases, and history of COVID-19 illness. 3-5 mL of venous blood was collected from each participant and blood samples were tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. Seroprevalence was estimated after applying the sampling weights and adjusting for clustering and assay characteristics. We randomly selected one adult serum sample from each household to compare the seroprevalence among adults between the two serosurveys.Findings Between Aug 18 and Sept 20, 2020, we enrolled and collected serum samples from 29 082 individuals from 15 613 households. The weighted and adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in individuals aged 10 years or older was 6•6% (95% CI 5•8-7•4). Among 15 084 randomly selected adults (one per household), the weighted and adjusted seroprevalence was 7•1% (6•2-8•2). Seroprevalence was similar across age groups, sexes, and occupations. Seroprevalence was highest in urban slum areas followed by urban non-slum and rural areas. We estimated a cumulative 74•3 million infections in the country by Aug 18, 2020, with 26-32 infections for every reported COVID-19 case.Interpretation Approximately one in 15 individuals aged 10 years or older in India had SARS-CoV-2 infection by Aug 18, 2020. The adult seroprevalence increased approximately tenfold between May and August, 2020. Lower infection-to-case ratio in August than in May reflects a substantial increase in testing across the country.
Background The burden of dengue virus (DENV) infection across geographical regions of India is poorly quantified. We estimated the age-specific seroprevalence, force of infection, and number of infections in India. MethodsWe did a community-based survey in 240 clusters (118 rural, 122 urban), selected from 60 districts of 15 Indian states from five geographical regions. We enumerated each cluster, randomly selected (with an Andriod application developed specifically for the survey) 25 individuals from age groups of 5-8 years, 9-17 years, and 18-45 years, and sampled a minimum of 11 individuals from each age group (all the 25 randomly selected individuals in each age group were visited in their houses and individuals who consented for the survey were included in the study). Age was the only inclusion criterion; for the purpose of enumeration, individuals residing in the household for more than 6 months were included. Sera were tested centrally by a laboratory team of scientific and technical staff for IgG antibodies against the DENV with the use of indirect ELISA. We calculated age group specific seroprevalence and constructed catalytic models to estimate force of infection. FindingsFrom June 19, 2017, to April 12, 2018, we randomly selected 17 930 individuals from three age groups. Of these, blood samples were collected and tested for 12 300 individuals (5-8 years, n=4059; 9-17 years, n=4265; 18-45 years, n=3976). The overall seroprevalence of DENV infection in India was 48•7% (95% CI 43•5-54•0), increasing from 28•3% (21•5-36•2) among children aged 5-8 years to 41•0% (32•4-50•1) among children aged 9-17 years and 56•2% (49•0-63•1) among individuals aged between 18-45 years. The seroprevalence was high in the southern (76•9% [69•1-83•2]), western (62•3% [55•3-68•8]), and northern (60•3% [49•3-70•5]) regions. The estimated number of primary DENV infections with the constant force of infection model was 12 991 357 (12 825 128-13 130 258) and for the age-dependent force of infection model was 8 655 425 (7 243 630-9 545 052) among individuals aged 5-45 years from 30 Indian states in 2017.Interpretation The burden of dengue infection in India was heterogeneous, with evidence of high transmission in northern, western, and southern regions. The survey findings will be useful in making informed decisions about introduction of upcoming dengue vaccines in India.
The prevalence and the burden of vincristine-induced neuropathy have been poorly documented in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care center in northern India from October 2011 to June 2012. Eighty consecutive acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors aged 5 to 18 years, within 3 years of completion of their chemotherapy, were enrolled. After clinical evaluation, detailed nerve conduction studies were performed and the reduced version of the Total Neuropathy Score was calculated. The mean age at the time of evaluation was 11.2 ± 3.2 years. 33.75% had neuropathy electrophysiologically. Symmetric motor axonal polyneuropathy was the most common pattern of involvement seen in 19 (23.8%) children. There was significant improvement with time, as revealed by lower prevalence of neuropathy with increasing interval following vincristine injection. 33.75% of the children had Reduced version of Total Neuropathy Score ≥ 1.
Background India has made substantial progress in improving child survival over the past few decades, but a comprehensive understanding of child mortality trends at disaggregated geographical levels is not available. We present a detailed analysis of subnational trends of child mortality to inform efforts aimed at meeting the India National Health Policy (NHP) and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for child mortality. MethodsWe assessed the under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) from 2000 to 2017 in 5 × 5 km grids across India, and for the districts and states of India, using all accessible data from various sources including surveys with subnational geographical information. The 31 states and groups of union territories were categorised into three groups using their Socio-demographic Index (SDI) level, calculated as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study on the basis of per-capita income, mean education, and total fertility rate in women younger than 25 years. Inequality between districts within the states was assessed using the coefficient of variation. We projected U5MR and NMR for the states and districts up to 2025 and 2030 on the basis of the trends from 2000 to 2017 and compared these projections with the NHP 2025 and SDG 2030 targets for U5MR (23 deaths and 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths, respectively) and NMR (16 deaths and 12 deaths per 1000 livebirths, respectively). We assessed the causes of child death and the contribution of risk factors to child deaths at the state level. Findings U5MR in India decreased from 83•1 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 76•7-90•1) in 2000 to 42•4 (36•5-50•0) per 1000 livebirths in 2017, and NMR from 38•0 (34•2-41•6) to 23•5 (20•1-27•8) per 1000 livebirths. U5MR varied 5•7 times between the states of India and 10•5 times between the 723 districts of India in 2017, whereas NMR varied 4•5 times and 8•0 times, respectively. In the low SDI states, 275 (88%) districts had a U5MR of 40 or more per 1000 livebirths and 291 (93%) districts had an NMR of 20 or more per 1000 livebirths in 2017. The annual rate of change from 2010 to 2017 varied among the districts from a 9•02% (95% UI 6•30-11•63) reduction to no significant change for U5MR and from an 8•05% (95% UI 5•34-10•74) reduction to no significant change for NMR. Inequality between districts within the states increased from 2000 to 2017 in 23 of the 31 states for U5MR and in 24 states for NMR, with the largest increases in Odisha and Assam among the low SDI states. If the trends observed up to 2017 were to continue, India would meet the SDG 2030 U5MR target but not the SDG 2030 NMR target or either of the NHP 2025 targets. To reach the SDG 2030 targets individually, 246 (34%) districts for U5MR and 430 (59%) districts for NMR would need a higher rate of improvement than they had up to 2017. For all major causes of under-5 death in India, the death rate decreased between 2000 and 2017, with the highest decline for infectious diseases, intermediate decline for neona...
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