BackgroundRecent studies reported that sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can potentially reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is little or no information on the therapeutic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the progression of atherosclerosis. This dapagliflozin effectiveness on vascular endothelial function and glycemic control (DEFENCE) study was designed to determine the effects of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on endothelial function in patients with early-stage T2DM.MethodsDEFENCE is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, parallel-group, comparative clinical trial. Between October 2015 and August 2016, 80 T2DM patients treated with 750 mg of metformin (hemoglobin A1c ≥6.0 and <8.0%, n = 80) were enrolled and randomized to receive either 1500 mg/day metformin (the metformin group, n = 40), or 750 mg/day metformin supplemented with 5 mg/day dapagliflozin (the dapagliflozin group, n = 40), for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was a change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from baseline to the end of the 16-week treatment period. The secondary outcomes include changes in indexes of glycemic control, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress, body composition, and safety evaluation.ResultsAlthough FMD tended to improve only in the dapagliflozin group, ΔFMD was comparable between the two groups. Analysis of patients with HbA1c >7.0% showed significant improvement of FMD in the dapagliflozin group than metformin group (P < 0.05). HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, plasma glucagon, and body weight significantly decreased in both groups. Interestingly, urine 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosin, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was significantly lower in the dapagliflozin group than metformin group at 16 weeks (P < 0.001).ConclusionsDapagliflozin add-on therapy to metformin for 16 weeks improved endothelial function, as assessed by FMD, in patients with inadequately controlled early-stage T2DM. Improvement in oxidative stress may contribute to the improvement in FMD. Trial registration University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000018754)Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12933-017-0564-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Background: Few prospective studies have compared the cardiovascular benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. We aimed to clarify the efficacy of dapagliflozin versus sitagliptin for modulating cardiometabolic risk factors including high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, hypoglycemia, and body weight. Methods: This prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, parallel-group trial enrolled 340 Japanese patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes receiving metformin alone or no glucose-lowering agents, who were randomized to receive dapagliflozin or sitagliptin for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved the composite endpoint of HbA1c level maintenance < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol), avoidance of hypoglycemia (maintenance of sensor glucose ≥ 3.0 mmol/L or ≥ 54 mg/dL), and ≥ 3.0% body weight loss from baseline. Secondary endpoints included components of the primary endpoint, other metabolic indices, and glucose variability indices measured using flash glucose monitoring. Results: Clinical characteristics of patients were age, 58.1 ± 12.2 years; known duration of diabetes, 5.8 ± 6.1 years; body weight, 74.7 ± 14.2 kg; body mass index, 27.9 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 ; and HbA1c level, 7.8 ± 0.8% at baseline. The achievement ratio of primary endpoint was significantly higher in the dapagliflozin group than in the sitagliptin group (24.4% vs. 13.8%, P < 0.05). While the rates of HbA1c level maintenance < 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and avoidance of hypoglycemia were comparable between the groups (49.4 vs. 50.0% and 88.7 vs. 92.3% for dapagliflozin vs. sitagliptin, respectively), body weight loss of ≥ 3.0% was significantly achieved in the dapagliflozin group (54.4 vs. 19.6%, P < 0.001). Moreover, dapagliflozin was superior to sitagliptin regarding several secondary endpoints that modulate cardiometabolic risk, namely reducing fasting plasma glucose, insulin, uric acid, increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and suppressing the increase in serum creatinine and the decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate. On the other hand, sitagliptin was superior to dapagliflozin in suppressing glucose variability.
Aims/IntroductionThe present multicenter, prospective, controlled, open and randomized three‐arm parallel study was designed to compare the effects of linagliptin with those of metformin on endothelial function.Materials and MethodsType 2 diabetes patients treated with 750 mg of metformin (hemoglobin A1c ≥6.0% and <8.0%, n = 96) were randomized to continue metformin 750 mg/day (control group, n = 29), metformin at 1,500 mg/day (metformin group, n = 26) and metformin 750 mg/day supplemented with linagliptin 5 mg/day (linagliptin add‐on group, n = 29) and treated for 16 weeks. Vascular endothelial function was evaluated by flow‐mediated dilation. The primary end‐point was changes in flow‐mediated dilation at 16 weeks relative to baseline.ResultsLinagliptin significantly improved flow‐mediated dilation from baseline (4.9 ± 2.7%) to 16 weeks (6.3 ± 2.7%, P < 0.05), whereas the other groups did not show any changes. Hemoglobin A1c at 16 weeks was significantly lower in the metformin and linagliptin add‐on groups compared with the control (6.6 ± 0.6%, 6.5 ± 0.5% and 7.0 ± 0.6%, respectively). Single and multiple regression analyses showed that apolipoprotein B correlated significantly with change in flow‐mediated dilation, and apolipoprotein B was decreased only in the linagliptin add‐on group (–6.0 ± 11.3 mg/dL, P < 0.01).ConclusionsLinagliptin for 16 weeks improved endothelial function with a modest improvement in glycemic control. This effect was mediated, at least in part, by reduction in apolipoprotein B. Linagliptin has a protective role on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes with moderate hyperglycemia.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) plays a crucial role in type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. The major underlying pathogenesis is hepatic insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to characterize patients with NAFLD with paradoxically normal hepatic insulin sensitivity relative to patients with NAFLD with hepatic insulin resistance. We recruited 26 patients with NAFLD and divided them into three groups ranked by the level of hepatic insulin sensitivity (HIS; high‐HIS, mid‐HIS, low‐HIS), as assessed by the hyperinsulinemic‐euglycemic clamp studies using stable isotope. Hepatic insulin sensitivity of the high‐HIS group was identical to that of the non‐NAFLD lean control (clamped percent suppression of endogenous glucose production, 91.1% ± 5.2% versus 91.0% ± 8.5%, respectively) and was significantly higher than that of the low‐HIS group (66.6% ± 7.5%; P < 0.01). Adiposity (subcutaneous, visceral, intrahepatic, and muscular lipid content), hepatic histopathology, and expression levels of various genes by using liver biopsies, muscle, and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, plasma metabolites by metabolomics analysis, putative biomarkers, and lifestyles were assessed and compared between the high‐HIS and low‐HIS groups. Among these, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity assessed by clamped percent suppression of free fatty acid, serum high molecular weight adiponectin, and plasma tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites, such as citric acid and cis‐aconitic acid, were significantly higher in the high‐HIS group compared to the low‐HIS group. In contrast, there were no differences in adiposity, including intrahepatic lipid content assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (28.3% ± 16.1% versus 20.4% ± 9.9%, respectively), hepatic histopathology, other putative biomarkers, and lifestyles. Conclusion: High levels of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, serum high molecular weight adiponectin, and plasma tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites are unique characteristics that define patients with hepatic insulin‐sensitive NAFLD regardless of intrahepatic lipid content. (Hepatology Communications 2017;1:634–647)
Background While the cardioprotective benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been established in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), their advantages over other anti-diabetic drugs at earlier stages remain unclear. We compared the cardioprotective effects of empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, with those of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, focusing on cardiac fat accumulation, cardiac function, and cardiac metabolism in patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without CVD complications. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, parallel-group trial that enrolled 44 Japanese patients with T2DM. The patients were randomized for 12-week administration of empagliflozin or sitagliptin. Pericardial fat accumulation and myocardial triglyceride content were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Echocardiography, 123I-β-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy, and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and after the 12-week treatment period. Results The patients were middle-aged (50.3 ± 10.7 years, mean ± standard deviation) and overweight (body mass index 29.3 ± 4.9 kg/m2). They had a short diabetes duration (3.5 ± 3.2 years), HbA1c levels of 7.1 ± 0.8%, and preserved cardiac function (ejection fraction 73.8 ± 5.0%) with no vascular complications, except for one baseline case each of diabetic nephropathy and peripheral arterial disease. After the 12-week treatment, no differences from baseline were observed between the two groups regarding changes in pericardial, epicardial, and paracardial fat content; myocardial triglyceride content; cardiac function and mass; and cardiac fatty acid metabolism. However, considering cardiometabolic biomarkers, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ketone bodies, including β-hydroxybutyric acid, were significantly increased, whereas uric acid, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly lower in the empagliflozin group than in the sitagliptin group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Although the effects on cardiac fat and function were not statistically different between the two groups, empagliflozin exhibited superior effects on cardiometabolic biomarkers, such as uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ketone bodies, and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, when considering the primary preventive strategies for CVD, early supplementation with SGLT2 inhibitors may be more beneficial than DPP-4 inhibitors, even in patients with early-stage T2DM without current CVD complications. Clinical Trial Registration: UMIN000026340; registered on February 28, 2017. https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/icdr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000030257
Sleep deprivation is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanisms of sleep deprivation-induced glucose intolerance remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of sleep deprivation-induced glucose intolerance in mice with a special focus on the liver. We established a mouse model of sleep deprivation-induced glucose intolerance using C57BL/6J male mice. A single 6-hr sleep deprivation by the gentle handling method under fasting condition induced glucose intolerance. Hepatic glucose production assessed by pyruvate challenge test was significantly increased, as was hepatic triglyceride content (by 67.9%) in the sleep deprivation group, compared with freely sleeping control mice. Metabolome and microarray analyses were used to evaluate hepatic metabolites and gene expression levels and determine the molecular mechanisms of sleep deprivation-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic metabolites, such as acetyl CoA, 3β-hydroxybutyric acid, and certain acylcarnitines were significantly increased in the sleep deprivation group, suggesting increased lipid oxidation in the liver. In contrast, fasted sleep-deprived mice showed that hepatic gene expression levels of Elovl3, Lpin1, Plin4, Plin5 and Acot1, which are known to play lipogenic roles, were 2.7, 4.5, 3.7, 2.9, and 2.8 times, respectively, those of the fasted sleeping control group, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Sleep deprivation-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance seem to be mediated through upregulation of hepatic lipogenic enzymes.
Intermittent empagliflozin supplementation is a useful therapeutic option that empowers dietary self-management, improves glycaemic control and is accompanied by body weight loss and an increase in diabetes treatment-related QoL in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes.
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