The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the thickness of mouthguard sheets under different heating conditions during fabrication. Mouthguards were fabricated with polyolefin-polystyrene co-polymer (OS) and olefin co-polymer (OL) sheets (4.0-mm thick) utilizing a vacuum-forming machine under the following three conditions: (A) the sheet was moulded when it sagged 15 mm below the sheet frame (i.e. the normally used position); (B) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 30 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm; and (C) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 50 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm. The working model was trimmed to a height of 20 mm at the incisor and 15 mm at the first molar. Post-moulding thickness was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp, central groove and buccal surface). Dimensions were measured, and differences in the change in thickness due to heating condition were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Under condition C, OS and OL decreased in thickness from 0.36-0.54 mm to 0.26-0.30 mm, respectively, at the incisal portion and from 0.34-0.66 mm to 0.17-0.47 mm, respectively, at the molar portion. It may be clinically useful when moulding a mouthguard to maintain the thickness of the incisal and molar portions by adjusting the height of the sheet frame.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in thickness of a working model mouthguard sheet due to different shape. Mouthguards were fabricated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum-forming machine. Two shapes of the sheet were compared: normal sheet or v-shaped groove 10-40 mm from the anterior end. Additionally, two shapes of the working model were compared; the basal plane was vertical to the tooth axis of the maxillary central incisor (condition A), and the occlusal plane was parallel to the basal plane (condition B). Sheets were heated until they sagged 15 mm below the clamp. Postmolding thickness was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface). Differences in the change in thickness due to the shape of the sheets and model were analyzed using two-way anova followed by a Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The thickness of the mouthguard sheet with v-shaped grooves was more than that of the normal sheet at all measuring points under condition A and condition B (P < 0.01). The thickness of condition B was less than that of condition A, there the incisal portion in the normal sheet and the incisal edge in the sheet with v-shaped grooves (P < 0.01). The present results suggested that thickness after molding was secured by the use of the sheet with v-shaped grooves. In particular, the model with the undercut on the labial surface may be clinically useful.
The present study suggests that the Shore A hardness and thickness after formation varied depending upon the colors of the EVA sheets and manufactures. A correlation between the hardness and change of thickness was observed in two manufactures that suggests that the hard sheets tend to reduce in thickness greater than that in softer ones.
Within the limitation of this study, it was suggested that when forming a mouthguard using a 4.0-mm EVA sheet and a circle tray on a vacuum forming machine, the sheet should be formed at a sagging distance of 10-mm.
When molding a mouthguard using an EVA sheet, the thickness of the incisal and molar portions of the mouthguard can be maintained by adjusting the height of the sheet frame and heating conditions, which may be clinically useful.
The aim of this study was to examine the infl uence of the preparing condition of the working cast and mouthguard sheet on the thickness of mouthguard. Methods: We used a mouthguard sheet (127 127 3.8 mm). The sheets were formed by a vacuum former when they were heated until they were hung 1.5 cm from baseline. The thickness of the mouthguard sheet was measured at the part fi tted to anterior and posterior teeth. As the preparing conditions of the working cast, relations among the measurement point, setting position, and temperature of the working cast as well as among measurement point, setting position, and angle of the working cast were analyzed by Three-way ANOVA. As the condition of the mouthguard sheet, the relation between the measurement point and temperature of the sheet was analyzed by Twoway ANOVA. Results: The thickness at anterior teeth became bigger at the condition that the working cast was set in the posterior position, and that of posterior teeth became bigger at the condition that the working cast was set in the center position. The thickness at anterior and posterior teeth became bigger at the condition that the angle of the working cast was set 80. The thickness at anterior teeth became bigger when the temperature of the mouthguard sheet was high. Conclusions: These results suggest that the thickness of the mouthguard could be maximized when the position of the part of the working cast that need to keep the thickness was set in the center, the angle of the working cast was set to 80 , and the temperature of the mouthguard sheet was high.
The aim of this study was to investigate vacuum forming techniques for reduction of loss in mouthguard thickness effects of sheet grooving and thermal shrinkage of extruded sheets on molded mouthguard thickness. Mouthguards were fabricated with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets (4.0 mm thick) using a vacuum forming machine. Sheet form was a convexing v-shaped groove toward the back, 10-40 mm from the anterior end. The sheets were placed in the forming machine with the sheet extrusion direction either vertical or parallel to the model's centerline of right and left. Molding was performed by crimping the sheet using suction when the most descending portion of the sheet sagged downwards from the clamp, 15 mm below the basal surface. Postmolding thickness was determined using a measuring device. Measurement points were the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface). Differences in molded mouthguard thickness with the sheet orientation of extruded EVA sheets were analyzed by student's t-test. The sheet in parallel axis orientation with the model's centerline yielded higher thickness than vertical orientation at the labial surface and the buccal surface. The present results suggested that addition of a groove to the sheet in conjunction with placement of the sheet with its axis of orientation parallel the centerline of the working model can effectively reduce thickness loss in the molded mouthguard with the equipment and materials used in this study.
Heating the mouthguard sheet until the temperature reached 120°C was the best fabrication method to maintain the thickness and to obtain proper fit. It is important to control the heating temperature when fabricating vacuum-formed mouthguards.
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