Abstract:Nonlinear optical phenomena in nanostructured materials have been challenging our perceptions of nonlinear optical processes that have been explored since the invention of lasers. For example, the ability to control optical field confinement, enhancement, and scattering almost independently, allows nonlinear frequency conversion efficiencies to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude compared to bulk materials. Also, the subwavelength length scale renders phase matching issues irrelevant. Compared with plasmonic nanostructures, dielectric resonator metamaterials show great promise for enhanced nonlinear optical processes due to their larger mode volumes. Here, we present, for the first time, resonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) using Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based dielectric metasurfaces. Using arrays of cylindrical resonators we observe SHG enhancement factors as large as 10 4 relative to 2 unpatterned GaAs. At the magnetic dipole resonance we measure an absolute nonlinear conversion efficiency of ~2 × 10 −5 with ~3.4 GW/cm 2 pump intensity. The polarization properties of the SHG reveal that both bulk and surface nonlinearities play important roles in the observed nonlinear process.
Plasmonic metamaterials exhibit strong and tunable dispersion, as a result of their pronounced resonances. This dispersion is used to construct an ultrathin light-shaping element that produces different waves at two distinct wavelengths in the near IR range. The optical response of the pixelated element is adjusted by variations in the geometry of the metamaterial's unit cell. Applications requiring spatial and spectral control of light become feasible.
We demonstrate a nonlinear optical chip that generates photons with reconfigurable nonclassical spatial correlations. We employ a quadratic nonlinear waveguide array, where photon pairs are generated through spontaneous parametric down-conversion and simultaneously spread through quantum walks between the waveguides. Because of the quantum interference of these cascaded quantum walks, the emerging photons can become entangled over multiple waveguide positions. We experimentally observe highly nonclassical photon-pair correlations, confirming the high fidelity of on-chip quantum interference. Furthermore, we demonstrate biphoton-state tunability by spatial shaping and frequency tuning of the classical pump beam.
All-dielectric optical metasurfaces are a workhorse in nano-optics, because of both their ability to manipulate light in different degrees of freedom and their excellent performance at light frequency conversion. Here, we demonstrate first-time generation of photon pairs via spontaneous parametric-down conversion in lithium niobate quantum optical metasurfaces with electric and magnetic Mie-like resonances at various wavelengths. By engineering the quantum optical metasurface, we tailor the photon-pair spectrum in a controlled way. Within a narrow bandwidth around the resonance, the rate of pair production is enhanced up to 2 orders of magnitude, compared to an unpatterned film of the same thickness and material. These results enable flat-optics sources of entangled photons—a new promising platform for quantum optics experiments.
We experimentally investigate coupling of the photoluminescence (PL) from monolayers of MoS2 to Mie-resonant metasurfaces consisting of silicon nanocylinders. By a systematic variation of the nanocylinder diameter, we sweep the metasurface resonances over the excitonic emission band of monolayer MoS2. We observe strong enhancement, as well as spectral and directional reshaping of the emission. By a comprehensive optical characterization, we unveil the different physical factors, including electronic, photonic, and mechanical influences, responsible for the observed PL changes. Importantly, we show that by geometrical tuning of the nanocylinder resonances, the emission can be tailored from occurring under very large angles to being directed out of the substrate plane. Our results highlight the need and potential of controlling not only the photonic, but also electronic and mechanical environmental factors for tailoring PL from TMD monolayers by integrating them in nanophotonic architectures.
Lithium niobate is an excellent and widely used material for nonlinear frequency conversion due to its strong optical nonlinearity and broad transparency region. Here, we report the fabrication and experimental investigation of resonant nonlinear metasurfaces for second-harmonic generation based on thin-film lithium niobate. In the fabricated metasurfaces, we observe pronounced Mie-type resonances leading to enhanced second-harmonic generation in the direction normal to the metasurface. We find the largest second-harmonic generation efficiency for the resonance dominated by the electric contributions because its specific field distribution enables the most efficient usage of the largest element of the lithium niobate nonlinear susceptibility tensor. This is confirmed by polarization-resolved second-harmonic measurements, where we study contributions from different elements of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor to the total second-harmonic signal. Our work facilitates establishing lithium niobate as a material for resonant nanophotonics.
Resonant semiconductor metasurfaces are an emerging versatile platform for nonlinear photonics. In this work, we investigate second-harmonic generation from metasurfaces consisting of two-dimensional square arrays of gallium arsenide nanocylinders as a function of the polarization of the fundamental wave. To this end, we perform nonlinear second harmonic microscopy, where the pump wavelength is tuned to the resonances of the metasurfaces. Furthermore, imaging the generated nonlinear signal in Fourier space allows us to analyze the spatial properties of the generated second harmonic. Our experiments reveal that the second harmonic is predominantly emitted into the first diffraction orders of the periodic arrangements, and that its intensity varies with the polarization angle of the fundamental wave. While this can be expected from the structure of the GaAs nonlinear tensor, the characteristics of this variation itself are found to depend on the pump wavelength. Interestingly, we show that the metasurface can reverse the polarization dependence of the second harmonic with respect to an unstructured GaAs wafer. These general observations are confirmed by numerical simulations using a simplified model for the metasurface. Our results provide valuable input for the development of metasurface-based classical and quantum light sources based on parametric processes.
Nanoscale waveguides are basic building blocks of integrated optical devices. Especially, waveguides made from nonlinear optical materials, such as lithium niobate, allow access to a broad range of applications using second-order nonlinear frequency conversion processes. Based on a lithium niobate on insulator substrate, millimeter-long nanoscale waveguides were fabricated with widths as small as 200 nm. The fabrication was done by means of potassium hydroxide-assisted ion-beam-enhanced etching. The waveguides were optically characterized in the near infrared wavelength range showing phase-matched second-harmonic generation.
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