A study was undertaken to determine the early and long-term outcomes dictated by the Fontan state per se (a state in which the force driving pulmonary blood flow is solely or largely a residue, in the systemic venous pressure, of the main ventricular chamber's contractile force) and the transition (by surgery) to it from the state of congenital heart disease under optimal conditions (after a "perfect" Fontan operation). The primary study design used a solution of a multivariate risk factor equation for death, by which survival rate under optimal conditions was predicted to be 92%, 89%, 88%, 86%, 81%, and 73% at 1 month, 6 months, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively, after the Fontan operation. The hazard function (instantaneous risk of death at each moment in time after the operation) had an early rapidly declining phase of hazard that at about 6 months began to give way to a late hazard phase, which was rising by about 6 years after surgery. A secondary study design, using the theory of competing risks, yielded survival and hazard function information very similar to that of the primary study design. The Therefore, a study was undertaken with the objective of determining the long-term outcome dictated by this unusual state, and by the operation required to create it, performed under optimal circumstances. Succinctly, outcome after a "perfect" Fontan operation was sought. Methods Study DesignTime-related survival and functional status were the outcome events selected for the study. Patients with hemodynamic and objective exercise data were too few to be studied or to be considered representative of the group as a whole. The objective of the study could not be met simply by describing the time-related survival rate and functional status of a large group of patients who had undergone the Fontan operation because both are adversely affected by circumstances not necessarily present in either the Fontan state per se or in the transition to it by surgery under optimal circumstances. Therefore, a design was adopted that sought to eliminate the effect of such circumstances, leaving only the effects of the Fontan state itself and the transition to it (by surgery) under optimal circumstances. A secondary and somewhat different design for the study of survival was also adopted to determine if the Values are for patients exclusive of those who underwent takedown of Fontan operation (n=7) or cardiac transplantation (n=4). Note: Time-related instantaneous risk of death in four modes is shown in Figure 4 (see text).answer to the question posed would be the same using a different design theory. Pnimary DesignThe survival and hazard functions for the total group of 334 patients were determined, retaining all patients up to the time of the last follow-up. A
The tick-borne bacterium
The tick-borne bacterium
A recent boom in commodities-for-manufactures trade between China and other developing countries has led to much concern about the losers from rising import competition in manufacturing, but little attention on the winners from growing Chinese demand for commodities. Using census data for Brazil, we find that local labour markets more affected by Chinese import competition experienced slower growth in manufacturing wages between 2000 and 2010. However, we observe faster wage growth in locations benefiting from rising Chinese commodity demand during the same period.
BackgroundUntil recently, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) was considered to represent a single tick species in the New World. Recent studies have split this taxon into six species. While the A. cajennense species complex or A. cajennense (sensu lato) (s.l.) is currently represented by two species in Brazil, A. cajennense (sensu stricto) (s.s.) and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888, their geographical distribution is poorly known.MethodsThe distribution of the A. cajennense (s.l.) in Brazil was determined by morphological examination of all lots of A. cajennense (s.l.) in two large tick collections of Brazil, and by collecting new material during three field expeditions in the possible transition areas between the distribution ranges of A. cajennense (s.s.) and A. sculptum. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the ITS2 rRNA gene was used to validate morphological results. Morphological description of the nymphal stage of A. cajennense (s.s.) is provided based on laboratory-reared specimens.ResultsFrom the tick collections, a total 12,512 adult ticks were examined and identified as 312 A. cajennense (s.s.), 6,252 A. sculptum and 5,948 A. cajennense (s.l.). A total of 1,746 ticks from 77 localities were collected during field expeditions, and were identified as 249 A. cajennense (s.s.), 443 A. sculptum, and 1,054 A. cajennense (s.l.) [these A. cajennense (s.l.) ticks were considered to be males of either A. cajennense (s.s.) or A. sculptum]. At least 23 localities contained the presence of both A. cajennense (s.s.) and A. sculptum in sympatry. DNA sequences of the ITS2 gene of 50 ticks from 30 localities confirmed the results of the morphological analyses. The nymph of A. cajennense (s.s.) is morphologically very similar to A. sculptum.ConclusionOur results confirmed that A. cajennense (s.l.) is currently represented in Brazil by only two species, A. cajennense (s.s.) and A. sculptum. While these species have distinct distribution areas in the country, they are found in sympatry in some transition areas. The current distribution of A. cajennense (s.l.) has important implications to public health, since in Brazil A. sculptum is the most important vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1460-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Twenty endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristematic tissues of three varieties of strawberry cultivated in vitro, and further identified, by FAME profile, into the genera Bacillus and Sphingopyxis. The strains were also characterized according to indole acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization and potential for plant growth promotion. Results showed that 15 strains produced high levels of IAA and all 20 showed potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Plant growth promotion evaluated under greenhouse conditions revealed the ability of the strains to enhance the root number, length and dry weight and also the leaf number, petiole length and dry weight of the aerial portion. Seven Bacillus spp. strains promoted root development and one strain of Sphingopyxis sp. promoted the development of plant shoots. The plant growth promotion showed to be correlated to IAA production and phosphate solubilization. The data also suggested that bacterial effects could potentially be harnessed to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in strawberry.
This study compared the vector competence of four populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks for the bacterium Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ticks (larvae and nymphs) from the four populations—one from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil (BSP), one from Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (BRS), one from Argentina (ARG), and one from Uruguay (URU)–were exposed to E. canis infection by feeding on dogs that were experimentally infected with E. canis. Engorged ticks (larvae and nymphs) were allowed to molt to nymphs and adults, respectively, which were tested by molecular analysis (E. canis-specific PCR assay) and used to infest naïve dogs. Through infestation of adult ticks on naïve dogs, after nymphal acquisition feeding on E. canis-infected dogs, only the BSP population was shown to be competent vectors of E. canis, i.e., only the dogs infested with BSP adult ticks developed clinical illness, seroconverted to E. canis, and yielded E. canis DNA by PCR. This result, demonstrated by two independent replications, is congruent with epidemiological data, since BSP ticks were derived from São Paulo state, Brazil, where CME is highly endemic. On the other hand, BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were derived from a geographical region (South America southern cone) where CME has never been properly documented. Molecular analysis of unfed adults at 30 days post molting support these transmission results, since none of the BRS, ARG, and URU ticks were PCR positive, whereas 1% of the BSP nymphs and 31.8% of the BSP adults contained E. canis DNA. We conclude that the absence or scarcity of cases of CME due to E. canis in the South America southern cone is a result of vector incompetence of the R. sanguineus group ticks that prevail on dogs in this part of South America.
Pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, is a carnivorous freshwater fish that exists along the Amazon Basin. This study investigated the effect of stocking density on growth performance and economic return of pirarucu in cages. Fish were stocked at densities of 10 or 12.5 fish/m 3 in 4.0-m 3 cages installed in Sítios Novos Reservoir (Ceará State, Brazil), with three replicate cages for each density. Fish were fed a formulated diet containing 40% crude protein and 14.2 MJ/kg of feed and cultured for 140 days. The following physicochemical parameters of the water were always at satisfactory levels for fish culture throughout the experiments: water temperatures ranged from 26.3 to 30.2°C, DO 3.2 to 7.7 mg/L, pH 6.9 to 7.7 and transparency 100 to 130 cm. Survival was high and ranged between 100.0% and 94.7 ± 5.0% in cages at 10 and 12.5 fish/m 3 , respectively. Density significantly affected (P b 0.05) final mean weight (2630.4 ± 213.7 and 2138.0 ± 148.2 g) and weight gain (2516.9±202.0 and 2043.1±142.9 g). In contrast, specific growth rate (2.25±0.09 and 2.22±0.06%/day), feed conversion ratio (1.2±0.1 and 1.2±0.2) and production (26.3±2.1 and 25.4±2.6 kg/m 3 ) were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by stocking density. Economic analysis was emphasized mostly on sales price and pirarucu juveniles and feed costs. The total costs of production were estimated at US$4.52/kg and US$5.31/kg for stocking densities of 10 fish/m 3 and 12.5 fish/m 3 , respectively. At a local market price of US$5.55/kg, the model used suggests that a commercial enterprise can be profitable only for density of 10 fish/m 3 . Furthermore, the economic viability of implementing of pirarucu culture in cages was analyzed using profitability indicators such as internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV) and payback period. The high survival, very fast growth and moderated production rates of pirarucu stocked demonstrate that cages are a viable alternative method to standard ponds for the commercial production of pirarucu. The economic indicators appear to be attractive, thus pirarucu cage culture can become a profitable industry.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers