The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) spans the second most common fragile site of the human genome, FRA16D, located at 16q23, and its expression is altered in several types of human cancer. We have previously shown that restoration of WWOX expression in cancer cells suppresses tumorigenicity. common fragile site ͉ FHIT ͉ knockout ͉ osteosarcoma ͉ lung cancer T he WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) encodes a 46-kDa protein that contains two WW domains and a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase domain (1-3). The WWOX gene is altered by deletions or translocations in a large fraction of many cancer types including breast, prostate, esophageal, lung, stomach, and pancreatic carcinomas (2, 4-9). WWOX protein is lost or reduced in the majority of these cancers and in a large fraction of other cancer types (10, 11). WWOX spans the second most active common fragile sites, FRA16D (reviewed in ref. 12). Common fragile sites are large regions of profound genomic instability found in all individuals. Following partial inhibition of DNA synthesis, those regions show site-specific gaps or breaks on metaphase chromosomes. In addition, common fragile sites exhibit induction of sister chromatid exchange and show a high rate of translocations and deletions in somatic cell hybrids (13). Because FRA16D maps within regions of frequent loss of heterozygosity, and is associated with homozygous deletions in various adenocarcinomas and with chromosomal translocations in multiple myeloma (2), these rearrangements have been suggested to inactivate the WWOX gene. On the other hand, ectopic overexpression of WWOX in cancer cells lacking expression of endogenous WWOX results in significant growth inhibition and prevents the development of tumors in athymic nude mice (14,15). In addition, we reported that restoration of WWOX expression in cancer cells results in caspase-mediated apoptosis (15). Thus, these data suggest that WWOX may act as a tumor suppressor Biochemical and functional characterization of WWOX has shown that it interacts with proline-tyrosine rich motifcontaining proteins. WWOX associates via its first WW domain with p73 and enhances p73-mediated apoptosis (16). WWOX also binds to the PPPY motif of AP2␥ and ErbB4, established oncogenes in breast cancer (17,18). Interestingly, WWOX suppresses the transcriptional ability of these target proteins by sequestering them in the cytoplasm (16)(17)(18). Taken together, accumulating evidence, both in cell culture and in nude mice, suggests that WWOX functions as a tumor suppressor, although no direct in vivo proof has yet been reported to verify WWOX as a bona fide tumor suppressor. To define the role of WWOX protein in cancer development, we generated mice carrying a targeted deletion of the Wwox gene. The murine Wwox locus is similar to its human homolog (19), spans the Fra8E1 common fragile site, and is highly conserved. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of both alleles of Wwox results in osteosarcomas in some early postnatal mice, whereas loss of one allele signifi...
In an effort to identify tumor suppressor gene(s) associated with the frequent loss of heterozygosity observed on chromosome 6q25–q27, we constructed a contig derived from the sequences of bacterial artificial chromosome/P1 bacteriophage artificial chromosome clones defined by the genetic interval D6S1581–D6S1579–D6S305–D6S1599–D6S1008. Sequence analysis of this contig found it to contain eight known genes, including the complete genomic structure of the Parkin gene. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of 40 malignant breast and ovarian tumors identified a common minimal region of loss, including the markers D6S305 (50%) and D6S1599 (32%). Both loci exhibited the highest frequencies of LOH in this study and are each located within the Parkin genomic structure. Whereas mutation analysis revealed no missense substitutions, expression of the Parkin gene appeared to be down-regulated or absent in the tumor biopsies and tumor cell lines examined. In addition, the identification of two truncating deletions in 3 of 20 ovarian tumor samples, as well as homozygous deletion of exon 2 in the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines Calu-3 and H-1573, supports the hypothesis that hemizygous or homozygous deletions are responsible for the abnormal expression of Parkin in these samples. These data suggest that the LOH observed at chromosome 6q25–q26 may contribute to the initiation and/or progression of cancer by inactivating or reducing the expression of the Parkin gene. Because Parkin maps to FRA6E , one of the most active common fragile sites in the human genome, it represents another example of a large tumor suppressor gene, like FHIT and WWOX , located at a common fragile site.
The WWOX gene is a recently cloned tumor suppressor gene that spans the FRA16D fragile region. Wwox protein contains two WW domains that are generally known to mediate protein-protein interaction. Here we show that Wwox physically interacts via its first WW domain with the p53 homolog, p73. The tyrosine kinase, Src, phosphorylates Wwox at tyrosine 33 in the first WW domain and enhances its binding to p73. Our results further demonstrate that Wwox expression triggers redistribution of nuclear p73 to the cytoplasm and, hence, suppresses its transcriptional activity. In addition, we show that cytoplasmic p73 contributes to the proapoptotic activity of Wwox. Our findings reveal a functional cross-talk between p73 and Wwox tumor suppressor protein.
The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase, WWOX, is a tumor suppressor that is deleted or altered in several cancer types. We recently showed that WWOX interacts with p73 and AP-2; and suppresses their transcriptional activity. Yesassociated protein (YAP), also containing WW domains, was shown to associate with p73 and enhance its transcriptional activity. In addition, YAP interacts with ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase and acts as transcriptional coactivator of the COOH-terminal fragment (CTF) of ErbB-4. Stimulation of ErbB-4-expressing cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) results in the proteolytic cleavage of its cytoplasmic domain and translocation of this domain to the nucleus. Here we report that WWOX physically associates with the full-length ErbB-4 via its first WW domain. Coexpression of WWOX and ErbB-4 in HeLa cells followed by treatment with TPA results in the retention of ErbB-4 in the cytoplasm. Moreover, in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, expressing high levels of endogenous WWOX, endogenous ErbB-4 is also retained in the cytoplasm. In addition, our results show that interaction of WWOX and ErbB-4 suppresses transcriptional coactivation of CTF by YAP in a dosedependent manner. A mutant form of WWOX lacking interaction with ErbB-4 has no effect on this coactivation of ErbB-4. Furthermore, WWOX is able to inhibit coactivation of p73 by YAP. In summary, our data indicate that WWOX antagonizes the function of YAP by competing for interaction with ErbB-4 and other targets and thus affect its transcriptional activity. (Cancer Res 2005; 65(15): 6764-72)
The WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) gene at the common fragile site, FRA16D, is altered in many types of cancer, including lung cancer. We have examined the tumor suppressor function of WWOX in preclinical lung cancer models. The WWOX gene was expressed in lung cancer cell lines through recombinant adenovirus (Ad) infection (Ad- WWOX ), and through a drug [ponasterone A, (ponA)]-inducible system. After WWOX restoration in vitro , endogenous Wwox protein-negative cell lines (A549, H460, and H1299) underwent apoptosis through activation of the intrinsic apoptotic caspase cascade in A549 and H460 cells. Ectopic expression of Wwox caused dramatic suppression of tumorigenicity of A549, H460, and H1299 cells in nude mice after Ad- WWOX infection and after ponA induction of Wwox expression in H1299 lung cancer cells. Tumorigenicity and in vitro growth of U2020 (Wwox-positive) lung cancer cells was unaffected by Wwox overexpression. This study confirms that WWOX is a tumor suppressor gene and is highly effective in preventing growth of lung cancer xenografts, whether introduced through viral infection or by induction of a silent WWOX transgene.
Purpose: WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) is a tumor suppressor gene that maps to the common fragile site FRA16D. We showed previously that WWOX is frequently altered in human lung and esophageal cancers. The purpose of this study was to delineate more precisely the role of WWOX in pancreatic carcinogenesis.Experimental Design: We analyzed 15 paired pancreatic adenocarcinoma samples and 9 pancreatic cancer cell lines for WWOX alterations. Colony assay and cell cycle analysis were also performed to evaluate the role of the WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene.Results: Loss of heterozygosity at the WWOX locus was observed in 4 primary tumors (27%). Methylation analysis showed that site-specific promoter hypermethylation was detected in 2 cell lines (22%) and treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine demonstrated an increase in the expression of WWOX. In addition, 2 primary tumor samples (13%) showed promoter hypermethylation including the position of site-specific methylation. Transcripts missing WWOX exons were detected in 4 cell lines (44%) and in 2 tumor samples (13%). Real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed a significant reduction of WWOX expression in all of the cell lines and in 6 primary tumors (40%). Western blot analysis showed a significant reduction of the WWOX protein in all of the cell lines.Furthermore, transfection with WWOX inhibited colony formation of pancreatic cancer cell lines by triggering apoptosis.Conclusion: These results indicate that the WWOX gene may play an important role in pancreatic tumor development.
The tumor suppressor gene FHIT spans a common fragile site and is highly susceptible to environmental carcinogens. FHIT inactivation and loss of expression is found in a large fraction of premaligant and malignant lesions. In this study, we were able to inhibit tumor development by oral gene transfer, using adenoviral or adenoassociated viral vectors expressing the human FHIT gene, in heterozygous Fhit ؉/؊ knockout mice, that are prone to tumor development after carcinogen exposure. We therefore suggest that FHIT gene therapy could be a novel clinical approach not only in treatment of early stages of cancer, but also in prevention of human cancer.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.