Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a species native to Western Asia that is able to pierce intact fruit during egg laying, causing it to be considered a fruit crop pest in many countries. Drosophila suzukii have a rapid expansion worldwide; occurrences were recorded in North America and Europe in 2008, and South America in 2013. Due to this rapid expansion, we modeled the potential distribution of this species using the Maximum Entropy Modeling (MaxEnt) algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production (GARP) using 407 sites with known occurrences worldwide and 11 predictor variables. After 1000 replicates, the value of the average area under the curve (AUC) of the model predictions with 1000 replicates was 0.97 for MaxEnt and 0.87 for GARP, indicating that both models had optimal performances. The environmental variables that most influenced the prediction of the MaxEnt model were the annual mean temperature, the maximum temperature of the warmest month, the mean temperature of the coldest quarter and the annual precipitation. The models indicated high environmental suitability, mainly in temperate and subtropical areas in the continents of Asia, Europe and North and South America, where the species has already been recorded. The potential for further invasions of the African and Australian continents is predicted due to the environmental suitability of these areas for this species.
Non-native insect pests are often responsible for important damage to native and agricultural plant hosts. Since Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become an important pest in North America and Europe (i.e., in 2008), the global production of soft thin-skinned fruits has faced severe production losses. In the southern Neotropical region, however, the first record of D. suzukii occurred in 2013 in the south of Brazil. It has also been recorded in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Despite its recent occurrence in the southern Neotropical region, the fast dispersion of D. suzukii has inspired local research efforts in an attempt to mitigate the consequences of this insect pest invasion. In this forum, we explore the current status of D. suzukii in southern Neotropical regions, discussing its future perspectives. Additionally, we attempt to draft activities and a research agenda that may help to mitigate the losses caused by D. suzukii in native and commercial soft-skinned fruits produced in this region. Currently, D. suzukii appears to be well established in the south of Brazil, but considering the entire southern Neotropical region, the invasion panorama is still underinvestigated. The lack of studies and regulatory actions against D. suzukii has contributed to the invasion success of this species in this region. Considering several peculiarities of both the pest biology and the environmental of this region, the authors advocate for the need of intensive and integrative studies toward the development and implementation of area-wide integrated pest management programs against D. suzukii in the southern Neotropical region.
Over the past few years, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) for insect pest management has attracted considerable interest in academia and industry as a pest-specific and environment-friendly strategy for pest control. For the success of this technique, the presence of core RNAi genes and a functional silencing machinery is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether the Neotropical brown stinkbug Euschistus heros has the main RNAi core genes and whether the supply of dsRNA could generate an efficient gene silencing response. To do this, total mRNA of all developmental stages was sequenced on an Illumina platform, followed by a de novo assembly, gene annotation and RNAirelated gene identification. Once RNAi-related genes were identified, nuclease activities in hemolymph were investigated through an ex vivo assay. To test the functionality of the siRNA machinery, E. heros adults were microinjected with ~28 ng per mg of insect of a dsRNA targeting the V-ATPase-A gene. Mortality, relative transcript levels of V-ATPase-A, and the expression of the genes involved in the siRNA machinery, Dicer-2 (DCR-2) and Argonaute 2 (AGO-2), were analyzed. Transcriptome sequencing generated more than 126 million sequenced reads, and these were annotated in approximately 80,000 contigs. The search of RNAi-related genes resulted in 47 genes involved in the three major RNAi pathways, with the absence of sid-like homologous. Although ex vivo incubation of dsRNA in E. heros hemolymph showed rapid degradation, there was 35% mortality at 4 days after treatment and a significant reduction in V-ATPase-A gene expression. These results indicated that although sid-like genes are lacking, the dsRNA uptake mechanism was very efficient. Also, 2-fold and 4-fold overexpression of DCR-2 and AGO-2, respectively, after dsRNA supply indicated the activation of the siRNA machinery. Consequently, E. heros has proven to be sensitive to RNAi upon injection of dsRNA into its hemocoel. We believe that this finding together with a publically available transcriptome and the validation of a responsive RNAi machinery provide a starting point for future field applications against one of the most important soybean pests in South America. The Neotropical brown stink bug (BS), Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is one of the most important Pentatomidae pests in South America 1 , especially in soybean (Glycine max) with a reduction in seed quality and yield 2. Stink bugs use their piercing/sucking mouthparts to inject enzymes into the plant tissues to digest plant components and remove pre-digested fluids 3. Although rarely reported before the 70s 2,4 , since then population outbreaks 2,5 and rapid population growth have allowed expansion of the range of E. heros to all the major South American soybean production regions, including Brazil 2 , Paraguay 2 , and Argentina 6 .
In order to characterize the ecosystems of fruit trees of the West Region of Santa Catarina State in relation to the Tephritidae species from twelve different fruit species grown in orchards located in four counties (Chapecó, Cunha Porã, São Carlos and Xanxerê), McPhail traps, baited with glucose 10%, were used to sample flies, from October 1998 to September 2000. To characterize the faunistic fruit flies populations of each county, the abundance index, constancy, dominance and frequency of fruit flies population were analyzed. A total of 8,393 specimens of fruit flies were collected, belonging to 20 species in seven genera. In Chapecó, 17 fruit flies were sampled, corresponding to an index of diversity of 2.0, followed by Cunha Porã with ten species and an index of 1.5. In Xanxerê the index was 1.1 to eight species. The smallest index was found in São Carlos (0.9), to seven species. Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) was found accidental in almost all the orchards, with exception to one orange orchard in São Carlos, where it was accessory. Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.
Ants diversity in Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina Margalef were 9.9; 9.7 and 12.6; of Shannon and Wiener 3.0; 3.2 and 3.4 and of equitability of 0.69; 0.73 and 0.74
The transformation of natural habitats into areas destined to agriculture or projects of energy production has generated a growing concern about the impact on biological diversity. Thus, this study evaluated the diversity of ants in agroecosystems in the area of direct influence of three wind farms in the municipality of Marmeleiro, State of Paraná and examined the association of occurrences with sampling periods. To this end, four samplings were conducted in 2013, one per season. Pitfalls, Malaise trap and Net sweep were used. The assemblages were characterized and compared using richness and number of occurrences of ants. Chao 2 estimates were calculated and a comparison (rarefaction analysis) of the assemblages was performed. The association of the species with the samples was evaluated by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Altogether, there were 1,576 occurrences of ants, totaling 55 species. The obtained estimate indicated that richness may be up to 35% higher. Our study adds important information about richness and occurrence of ants in a region poorly analyzed for this group. Most of all, it presents a survey of species occurring in agricultural ecosystems that may serve as a parameter for future evaluations when wind farms are installed.Keywords: Atlantic forest, composition, conservation, diversity, impacted areas, richness. Assembleia de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de três parques eólicos do estado do Paraná, Brasil ResumoA transformação de ambientes naturais em áreas agrícolas ou ocupadas por empreendimentos voltados à produção de energia tem gerado uma crescente preocupação com o impacto causado por estas atividades sobre a diversidade biológica. Por isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a diversidade de formigas em agroecosistemas, na área de influência direta de três parques eólicos no município de Marmeleiro, Paraná e analisou a associação das ocorrências com os períodos das amostras. Para tanto, foram realizadas quatro amostragens durante o ano de 2013, uma por estação. Foram empregados pitfall, armadilha Malaise e rede de varredura. As assembleias foram caracterizadas e comparadas através da riqueza e do número de ocorrências das formigas. Foram construídas estimativas (Chao 2) e um comparativo (análise de rarefação) para as assembleias. A associação das espécies com as amostras foi avaliada através de uma Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA). Ao todo foram registradas 1.576 ocorrências de formigas, totalizando 55 espécies. A estimativa obtida indica que a riqueza pode ser até 35% maior. O estudo acrescenta informações importantes sobre a riqueza e ocorrências de formigas para uma região com poucos estudos deste grupo. Apresenta, sobretudo, um inventário de espécies presentes em agroecossistemas que poderá servir de parâmetro para avaliações futuras quando os parques eólicos estiverem instalados.Palavras-chave: Mata Atlântica, composição, conservação, diversidade, áreas impactadas, riqueza.
The objective of this study was to identify ant occurrence in hospital environments in the State of Santa Catarina, along with associated bacteria. Ants were collected monthly from five inpatient clinics in two hospitals in the municipality of Chapecó, from August 2003 to June 2004. They were collected under aseptic conditions using swabs moistened with sterile distilled water and put into test tubes containing BHI for microbiological analysis. After 24 hours, cultures were made in both 5% sheep blood and MacConkey agar, which were incubated for 24 hours at 35/37°C. The Gram characterization, culture identification and biochemical characterization followed standardized rules for clinical microbiology. Seven species of ants were identified, of which the most frequent were Monomorium pharaonis (71.5%) and Solenopsis saevissima (57%), and nineteen species of bacteria was isolated from hospital "A". Key-words: Infection. Ants. Hospital. Bacteria. RESUMOOs objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a ocorrência de formigas e relacionar quais são as bactérias associadas a elas em ambiente hospitalar no Estado de Santa Catarina. As formigas foram coletadas mensalmente em cinco clínicas de internação de dois hospitais de Chapecó, SC no período de agosto de 2003 a junho de 2004. As formigas foram coletadas em condições assépticas com swab embebido em água destilada estéril, e depositadas em tubos de ensaio contendo caldo BHI para a análise microbiológica. Após 24 horas, foram realizadas semeaduras em ágar sangue de carneiro 5% e MacConkey, as quais foram incubadas por 24 horas a 35/37°C. A caracterização morfotintorial e identificação bioquímica e das culturas isoladas seguiram normas padronizadas para microbiologia clínica. Foram identificadas sete espécies de formigas: as mais freqüentes foram Monomorium pharaonis (71,5%), Solenopsis saevissima (57%), e dezenove espécies de bactérias foram isoladas no hospital "A". Palavras-chaves: Infecção. Formiga. Hospital. Bactérias.
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