Néel's theory of magnetostatic coupling between two magnetic layers with inplane magnetization separated by a non-magnetic spacer has been extended to the case of multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy. It is shown that the presence of a correlated roughness between the successive interfaces induces an interlayer coupling through the spacer analogous to the well-known orange peel coupling. However, depending on the parameters describing the interfacial roughness, the magnetic anisotropy and the exchange stiffness constant, this coupling can favor either parallel or an antiparallel alignment of the magnetization in the two ferromagnetic layers. This model was used to quantitatively interpret the variation of interlayer coupling vs. thickness of Pt spacer layer in out-of-plane magnetized exchange-biased spin-valves comprising (Pt/Co) multilayers as free and pinned layers. It is shown that the net coupling can be interpreted by the coexistence of perpendicular orange peel and oscillatory RKKY couplings. Interestingly, since these two couplings have different thickness dependence, in certain range of Pt thickness, the coupling changes sign during growth, being antiferromagnetic at the early stage of the growth of the top (Co/Pt) multilayer but ferromagnetic once the growth is completed.
The use of microwave-assisted synthesis (in water) of α-Fe 2 O 3 nanomaterials followed by their transformation onto iron oxide Fe 3 O 4 -γ-Fe 2 O 3 hollow nanoparticles encoding well-defined sizes and shapes [nanorings (NRs) and nanotubes (NTs)] is henceforth described. The impact of experimental variables such as concentration of reactants, volume of solvent employed, and reaction times/temperatures during the shape-controlled synthesis revealed that the key factor that gated generation of morphologically diverse nanoparticles was associated to the initial concentration of phosphate anions employed in the reactant mixture. All the nanomaterials presented were fully characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The hollow nanoparticles that expressed the most promising magnetic responses, NTs and NRs, were further tested in terms of efficiencies in controlling the magnetic hyperthermia, in view of their possible use for biomedical applications, supported by their excellent viability as screened by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. These systems NTs and NRs expressed very good magneto-hyperthermia properties, results that were further validated by micromagnetic simulations. The observed specific absorption rate (SAR) and intrinsic loss power of the NRs and NTs peaked the values of 340 W/g and 2.45 nH m 2 kg −1 (NRs) and 465 W/g and 3.3 nH m 2 kg −1 (NTs), respectively, at the maximum clinical field 450 Oe and under a frequency of 107 kHz and are the highest values among those reported so far in the hollow iron-oxide family. The higher SAR in NTs accounts the importance of magnetic shape anisotropy, which is well-predicted by the modified dynamic hysteresis (β-MDH) theoretical model.
An energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline mainly dedicated to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and material science under extreme conditions has been implemented in a bending-magnet port at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. Here the beamline technical characteristics are described, including the most important aspects of the mechanics, optical elements and detection set-up. The beamline performance is then illustrated through two case studies on strongly correlated transition metal oxides: an XMCD insight into the modifications of the magnetic properties of Cr-doped manganites and the structural deformation in nickel perovskites under high applied pressure.
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