The Amazon River Basin has the highest fish species diversity of any region in the world, but is under threat from anthropogenic perturbations including overharvesting, alien species and drought. We asked whether species diversity in this region is more a function of within-lake species richness (i.e., a diversity) or differences among lakes (b diversity). Although many studies have reported on species richness and diversity in single habitats, the importance of measuring diversity at different spatial scales is not yet well established. We collected fish in 10 floodplain lakes along the Solimões River (Brazil), divided evenly between two lake types: those on islands in the river channel (island lakes) and those on the margins of the river (coastal lakes) during 2006. We partitioned fish diversity into three spatial scales: a = within each lake; b 1 = among lakes of the same type (coastal or island) and b 2 = between the two types of lakes, and compared their relative contributions to regional (c) diversity. b 1 + b 2 contributed as much or more to c diversity than did a. Although many of the 116 fish species were shared between lake types (S = 72), 32 species were found exclusively in coastal lakes and 12 species were found exclusively in island lakes. Coastal lakes, which were deeper and cooler than island lakes, consistently had higher fish species richness than island lakes. We suggest that it will be necessary to set areas large enough to contain multiple lakes of both types to preserve regional fish diversity.
The fish community of the Solimões floodplain lakes was studied by bimonthly samples taken from May 2001 to April 2002. These were carried out at lakes Maracá (03º51'33"S, 62º35'08,6"W), Samaúma (03º50'42,1"S, 61º39'49,3"W), and Sumaúma and Sacambú (03º17 '11,6"S and 60º04'31,4"W), located between the town of Coari and the confluence of the Solimões and Negro rivers. Collections were done with 15 gillnets of standardized dimensions with several mesh sizes. We collected 1,313 animals distributed in 77 species, belonging to 55 genera of 20 families and 5 orders. Characiformes was the most abundant Order, with a larger number of representatives in the Serrasalmidae and Curimatidae. The most abundant species in the samplings were Psectrogaster rutiloides (132 individuals), Pigocentrus nattereri (115 individuals), and Serrasalmus elongatus (109 individuals). Lakes Samaúma, Sacambú, and Sumaúma were adjusted to logarithmic and lognormal series. The diversity exhibited an inverse gradient to the river flow, showing the highest diversity at Lake Sumaúma, followed by Samaúma, Sacambú, and Maracá. Species richness estimated through the jackknife technique ranged from 78 to 107 species.
ABSTRACT. We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that interconnectedness among island floodplain lakes and the adjacent Solimões River during the flood stage of the hydrologic cycle is enough to maintain similarity in fish species assemblages. Gill net samples were collected during high and low water periods for three consecutive years (July 2004 to July 2006) in four lakes on Paciência Island. Two lakes, Piranha and Ressaca, are connected to the river all year, and the other two, Preto and Cacau, which are in the center of the island, are isolated during low water periods. The abundance, species richness and evenness of the fish assemblages in these lakes did not differ according to their relative positions or the season of the hydrological cycle, which confirmed our hypothesis. However, fish abundance during the dry season was greater than in the flood season. Apparently, the short period of full connection between the lakes is enough to allow the colonization of all fish species, but not to cause similar abundances. Our study indicates that persistence of the species composition of island floodplain lakes is primarily due to the annual replenishment of fish to the lakes during the flood season.
The aim of this study was to analyse the trophic ecology of speckled peacock bass Cichla temensis inhabiting two tributaries of the middle Negro River, the Aracá River and the Demeni River. Using an analysis of stomach contents and stable isotope composition (δ15N, δ13C) of scales, we describe the diet and evaluate the trophic position of subadult and adult individuals. We then test whether diet shifts and trophic positions occurred among successive size classes and among sample locations. The stomach content analysis confirmed the piscivorous feeding habit of the species and showed that the speckled peacock bass preyed on a variety species belonging to different trophic guilds. The length of the ingested prey increased with the size of the speckled peacock bass. Diet composition and trophic position were not different among size classes. δ13C values yielded significant shifts among the size classes: larger individuals displayed higher δ13C values than smaller individuals. Trophic position varied between locations, with lowest values observed in fish from the Aracá River. This study demonstrated that diet of C. temensis may vary according to the size of the fish, even at the subadult or adult stages, and according to the river/locality, even within a same basin. We then suggest that further studies take into account local availability of food resources to better explore C. temensis diet and tropic ecology.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.