The objective of this study was to describe situations related to sexual health of adolescents, according to the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE). It is a cross-sectional study performed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in partnership with the Ministry of Health that involved 60,973 students and 1,453 public and private schools. Data analysis points out that 30.5% (95%CI 29.9-31.2) of the adolescents had already had sexual relations sometime in their lives, being more frequent for males (43.7%; 95%CI 42.7-44.7) than females (18.7%; 95%CI 18.0-19.4), especially those who go to public schools (33.1%; 95%CI 32.4-33.9), aged 15 years or older (47.3%; 95%CI 45.7-48.9) and 16 years (63.5%; 95%CI 61,5-65.4). The sexual initiation age was early and 40.1% (95%CI 38.8-41.4) reported having had only one partner in life. The use of condoms in the last sexual relation was high both for protective (75.9%; CI95% 74.8-76.9) and contraceptive methods (74.7%; 95%CI 73.6-75.7). It is necessary to emphasize actions for promoting sexual health towards adolescents in order to minimize vulnerabilities.
Objective: to identify the characteristics and reasons reported by Brazilian students for
school bullying. Method: this cross-sectional study uses data from an epidemiological survey (National
Survey of School Health) conducted in 2012. A total of 109,104 9th grade students
from private and public schools participated. Data were collected through a
self-applied questionnaire and the analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20,
Complex Samples Module. Results: the prevalence of bullying was 7.2%, most frequently affecting Afro-descendant or
indigenous younger boys, whose mothers were characterized by low levels of
education. In regard to the reasons/causes of bullying, 51.2% did not specify; the
second highest frequency of victimization was related to body appearance (18.6%);
followed by facial appearance (16.2%); race/color (6.8%); sexual orientation 2.9%;
religion 2.5%; and region of origin 1.7%. The results are similar to those found
in other sociocultural contexts. Conclusion: the problem belongs to the health field because it gathers aspects that determine
the students' health-disease-care continuum.
ABSTRACT:Objective: To describe the victimization and bullying practice in Brazilian school children, according to data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey and to compare the surveys from 2009 and 2012. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with univariate and multivariate analyzes of the following variables: to have been treated badly by colleagues, to have been bullied and to have bullied other children. The following independent variables were analyzed: age, sex, race/color, type of school, maternal education. Prevalence rates were compared between the editions of 2009 and 2012 of the survey. Results: Of all the adolescents analyzed, 27.5% have not been treated well by peers at school, with greater frequency among boys (OR = 1.50), at the age of 15 years (OR = 1.29) and 16 (OR = 1.41), public school students (OR = 2.08), black (OR = 1.18) and whose mothers had less education; 7.2% reported having been bullied, with a greater chance in younger students (13 years old), male (OR = 1.26), black (OR = 1.15) and indigenous (OR = 1.16) and whose mothers had less education; 20.8% reported to have bullied other children, with a greater chance for older students, at the age of 14 (OR = 1.08) and 15 years (OR = 1.18), male (OR = 1.87), black (OR = 1.14) and yellow (OR = 1.15), children of mothers with higher education, private school students. There was an increase of bullying in the Brazilian capitals, from 5.4 to 6.8%, between 2009 and 2012. Discussion: The occurrence of bullying reveals that the Brazilian school context is also becoming a space of reproduction of violence, in which it is crucial to act intersectorally and to articulate social protection networks, aiming to face this issue.
ABSTRACT:Objective: To evaluate the association between the consumption of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs) and demographic variables, mental health and family context among school-aged children. Methods: The National Adolescent School-based Health Survey was held with a national sample of 109,104 students. Data regarding demographic variables, family background and mental health were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. Results: Multivariate analyses showed that alcohol consumption was higher among girls, drug experimentation was more frequent among boys and that there was no difference between sexes for smoking. Being younger and mulatto were negatively associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Also negatively associated with such risk behaviors were characteristics of the family context represented by: living with parents, having meals together and parental supervision (when parents know what the child does in their free time). Moreover, characteristics of mental health such as loneliness and insomnia were positively associated with use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Not having friends was positively associated with use of tobacco and illicit drugs and negatively associated with alcohol use. Conclusions: The study shows the protective effect of family supervision in the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs and, on the contrary, the increasing use of substances according to aspects of mental health, such as loneliness, insomnia and the fact of not having friends. The study's findings may support actions from health and education professionals, as well as from the government and families in order to prevent the use of these substances by adolescents.
The aim of this study is to identify and describe the occurrence of bullying among students in the 9th year (8th grade) from public and private schools from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. It is a cross-sectional study involving 60,973 students and 1,453 public and private schools. Data analysis indicates that 5.4% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.7%) of students reported having suffered bullying almost always or always in the last 30 days, 25.4% (IC95%: 24.8%-26.0%) were rarely or sometimes the victim of bullying and 69.2% (IC95%: 68.5%-69.8%) of students felt no humiliation or provocation at school. The capital with higher frequency of bullying was Belo Horizonte (6.9%; IC95%: 5,9%-7,9%), Minas Gerais, and the lowest was Palmas (3.5%; IC95%: 2.6%-4.5%), Tocantins. Boys reported more bullying (6,0%; IC95%: 5.5%-6.5%) compared with girls (4,8%; IC95%: 4.4%-5.3%). There was no difference between public schools 5.5% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.8%) and private (5.2%) (IC95%: 4.6%-5.8%), except in Aracaju, Sergipe, that show more bullying in private schools. The findings indicate an urgent need for intersectoral action from educational policies and practices that enforce the reduction and prevention of the occurrence of bullying in schools in Brazil.
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