Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade extracellular matrix proteins and play important roles in development and tissue repair. They have also been shown to have both protective and pathogenic effects in atherosclerosis, and experimental studies have suggested that MMP-12 contributes to plaque growth and destabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between circulating MMPs, atherosclerosis burden, and incidence of cardiovascular disease with a particular focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Approach and Results—
Plasma levels of MMP-1, -3, -7, -10, and -12 were analyzed by the Proximity Extension Assay technology in 1500 subjects participating in the SUMMIT (surrogate markers for micro- and macrovascular hard end points for innovative diabetes tools) study, 384 incident coronary cases, and 409 matched controls in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study and in 205 carotid endarterectomy patients. Plasma MMP-7 and -12 were higher in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, increased with age and impaired renal function, and was independently associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease, atherosclerotic burden (as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index), arterial stiffness, and plaque inflammation. Baseline MMP-7 and -12 levels were increased in Malmö Diet and Cancer subjects who had a coronary event during follow-up.
The plasma level of MMP-7 and -12 are elevated in type 2 diabetes mellitus, associated with more severe atherosclerosis and an increased incidence of coronary events. These observations provide clinical support to previous experimental studies, demonstrating a role for these MMPs in plaque development, and suggest that they are potential biomarkers of atherosclerosis burden and cardiovascular disease risk.
BackgroundGood glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) protects the microcirculation. Current guidelines suggest glycaemic targets be relaxed in advanced diabetes. We explored whether disease duration or pre-existing macrovascular complications attenuated the association between hyperglycaemia and microvascular function.Methods743 participants with T2DM (n = 222), cardiovascular disease (CVD = 183), both (n = 177) or neither (controls = 161) from two centres in the UK, underwent standard clinical measures and endothelial dependent (ACh) and independent (SNP) microvascular function assessment using laser Doppler imaging.ResultsPeople with T2DM and CVD had attenuated ACh and SNP responses compared to controls. This was additive in those with both (ANOVA p < 0.001). In regression models, cardiovascular risk factors accounted for attenuated ACh and SNP responses in CVD, whereas HbA1c accounted for the effects of T2DM. HbA1c was associated with ACh and SNP response after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (adjusted standardised beta (β) −0.096, p = <0.008 and −0.135, p < 0.001, respectively). Pre-existing CVD did not modify this association (β −0.099; p = 0.006 and −0.138; p < 0.001, respectively). Duration of diabetes accounted for the association between HbA1c and ACh (β −0.043; p = 0.3), but not between HbA1c and SNP (β −0.105; p = 0.02).ConclusionsIn those with T2DM and CVD, good glycaemic control is still associated with better microvascular function, whereas in those with prolonged disease this association is lost. This suggests duration of diabetes may be a better surrogate for “advanced disease” than concomitant CVD, although this requires prospective validation.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12933-017-0594-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BackgroundCarotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and aortic PWV measured using MRI (MRI-PWV) show good correlation, but with a significant and consistent bias across studies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether the differences between cf.-PWV and MRI-PWV can be accounted for by inaccuracies of currently used distance measurements.MethodsOne hundred fourteen study participants were recruited into one of 4 groups: Type 2 diabetes melltus (T2DM) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 23), T2DM without CVD (n = 41), CVD without T2DM (n = 25) and a control group (n = 25). All participants underwent cf.-PWV, cardiac MRI and whole body MR angiography(WB-MRA). 90 study participants also underwent aortic PWV using MRI. cf.-PWVEXT was performed using a SphygmoCor device (Atcor Medical, West Ryde, Australia). The true intra-arterial pathlength was measured using the WB-MRA and then used to recalculate the cf.-PWVEXT to give a cf.-PWVMRA.ResultsDistance measurements were significantly lower on WB-MRA than on external tape measure (mean diff = −85.4 ± 54.0 mm,p < 0.001). MRI-PWV was significantly lower than cf.-PWVEXT (MRI-PWV = 8.1 ± 2.9 vs. cf.-PWVEXT = 10.9 ± 2.7 ms−1,p < 0.001). When cf.-PWV was recalculated using the inter-arterial distance from WB-MRA, this difference was significantly reduced but not lost (MRI-PWV = 8.1 ± 2.9 ms−1 vs. cf.-PWVMRA 9.1 ± 2.1 ms−1, mean diff = −0.96 ± 2.52 ms−1,p = 0.001). Recalculation of the PWV increased correlation with age and pulse pressure.ConclusionDifferences in cf.-PWV and MRI PWV can be predominantly but not entirely explained by inaccuracies introduced by the use of simple surface measurements to represent the convoluted arterial path between the carotid and femoral arteries.
BackgroundActivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) has been proposed to contribute to development of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to determine if plasma renin levels are associated with the severity of vascular changes in subjects with and without T2D.MethodsRenin was analyzed by the Proximity Extension Assay in subjects with (n = 985) and without (n = 515) T2D participating in the SUMMIT (SUrrogate markers for Micro- and Macro-vascular hard endpoints for Innovative diabetes Tools) study and in 205 carotid endarterectomy patients. Vascular changes were assessed by determining ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque area, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the reactivity hyperemia index (RHI).ResultsPlasma renin was elevated in subjects with T2D and demonstrated risk factor-independent association with prevalent cardiovascular disease both in subjects with and without T2D. Renin levels increased with age, body mass index, HbA1c and correlated inversely with HDL. Subjects with T2D had more severe carotid disease, increased arterial stiffness, and impaired endothelial function. Risk factor-independent associations between renin and APBI, bulb IMT, carotid plaque area were observed in both T2D and non-T2D subjects. These associations were independent of treatment with RAAS inhibitors. Only weak associations existed between plasma renin and the expression of pro-inflammatory and fibrous components in plaques from 205 endarterectomy patients.ConclusionsOur findings provide clinical evidence for associations between systemic RAAS activation and atherosclerotic burden and suggest that this association is of particular importance in T2D.
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