Experimentally characterizing evapotranspiration (ET) in different biomes around the world is an issue of interest for different areas of science. ET in natural areas of the Brazilian Pampa biome has still not been assessed. In this study, the actual ET (ETact) obtained from eddy covariance measurements over two sites of the Pampa biome was analyzed. The objective was to evaluate the energy partition and seasonal variability of the actual ET of the Pampa biome. Results showed that the latent heat flux was the dominant component in available energy in both the autumn–winter (AW) and spring–summer (SS) periods. Evapotranspiration of the Pampa biome showed strong seasonality, with highest ET rates in the SS period. During the study period, approximately 65% of the net radiation was used for the evapotranspiration process in the Pampa biome. The annual mean ET rate was 2.45 mm d−1. ET did not show to vary significantly between sites, with daily values very similar in both sites. The water availability in the Pampa biome was not a limiting factor for ET, which resulted in a small difference between the reference ET and the actual ET. These results are helpful in achieving a better understanding of the temporal pattern of ET in relation to the landscape of the Pampa biome and its meteorological, soil, and vegetation characteristics.
Studies of responses of native and introduced grassland species to lime and phosphorus (P) applications could contribute to improved understanding of the potential production of South American natural grasslands. To determine the effect of applying lime and different P sources on forage production, diversity and floristic composition, and on soil chemical properties, a small‐plot experiment was conducted over 12 years in natural grassland oversown with Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium vesiculosum in the Campos of southern Brazil. In treatments with soluble phosphate application, dry‐matter (DM) yield in November 2008, after 164 d of winter and early spring growth, increased from 2·3 to 3·2 t ha−1. Differences in DM yield in March 2009, after 111 d of growth during late spring and early summer, were not significant. The DM yield in April 2010, after 419 d of growth, increased from 7·7 to 9·2 t ha−1 in the treatments with P, regardless of the P source. Increased forage yield during the slow growth period in winter was only possible with the introduction of winter‐growing species (L. multiflorum and T. vesiculosum) and soluble phosphate application. Assessment of annual forage yield showed that the effectiveness of Gafsa rock phosphate was equivalent to that of soluble phosphates in the long term. Soluble phosphates and liming modified the botanical composition of natural Campos grassland in the long term, but floristic diversity was not altered.
-Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of the native grasses of the Pampa Biome Andropogon lateralis, Aristida laevis, Axonopus affinis, Erianthus angustifolius, Paspalum notatum, Paspalum plicatulum, Piptochaetium montevidense and Sorghastrum pellitum were evaluated as to the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization (zero and 100 kg N/ha). The experimental design was of randomized blocks with three replicates in a 8 × 2 (native grasses × N) factorial arrangement. Accumulated thermal sums of 350 and 700 degree days determined the interval between cuts for prostrate and caespitose growth habit species, respectively. Species considered of resource conservation (A. laevis, E. angustifolius, P. plicatulum and S. pellitum) had the highest leaf elongation rate when they received N. For leaf appearance rate, phyllochron, leaf senescence rate, leaf lifespan, number of green leaves and final length of leaf blades, there was difference between the evaluated species.
Foi avaliado o efeito dos horários de amostragem sobre as estimativas de excreção fecal, utilizando óxido de cromo como indicador externo, em três experimentos com bovinos em pastejo. Em todos os experimentos foi utilizada
Foi avaliado o desempenho de novilhas de corte dos três aos doze meses de idade, mantidas em pastagem cultivada logo após o desmame (experimento 1) e no primeiro inverno pós-desmame (experimento 2), com ou sem o fornecimento de suplementos energéticos. No período de 16/02 a 21/04/2001, as novilhas permaneceram em pastagem de milheto, exclusivamente sob pastejo (PAST1), suplementadas com grão de milho moído (PAST1/M) ou com polpa cítrica peletizada e moída (PAST1/P). No período de 13/07 a 09/10/2001, as novilhas foram mantidas em pastagem de aveia preta e azevém, sem suplementação (PAST2), suplementadas com grão de milho moído (PAST2/M) ou suplementadas com casca de soja (PAST2/C). Peso vivo (PV), ganho de peso diário médio (GDM) e escore de condição corporal (ECC) foram avaliados. No experimento 1, os animais suplementados apresentaram maior PV final, GDM e ECC que os não-suplementados, não diferindo entre si. No experimento 2, as novilhas suplementadas com casca de soja apresentaram maior GDM e PV final que as não-suplementadas, enquanto as suplementadas com grão de milho ficaram em posição intermediária. O maior ECC foi obtido pelos animais de PAST2/C, seguidos de PAST2/M e, por último, de PAST2. Novilhas de corte desmamadas aos 60-90 dias devem ser suplementadas no período inicial pós-desmama, para que atinjam desenvolvimento satisfatório nesta fase do crescimento. Os subprodutos polpa cítrica e casca de soja podem substituir o grão de milho como suplementos energéticos para recria de novilhas de corte.
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