Background and objectivesSecondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in CKD is associated with an increased risk for mortality, but definitive data showing that parathormone control decreases mortality is still lacking. This study aimed to compare the mortality of patients with severe SHPT submitted to parathyroidectomy(PTX) with those who did not have access to surgery.MethodsThis is a retrospective study in a cohort of 251 CKD patients with severe SHPT who were referred to a CKD-MBD Center for PTX from 2005 until 2012.ResultsMost of our patients had indication of PTX, but only 49% of them had access to this surgical procedure. After a mean follow-up of 23 months, 72 patients had died. Non-survivors were older; more often had diabetes, lower serum 25 vitamin D and mostly had not been submitted to surgery. The relative risk of death was lower in the PTX patients (0.428; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.67; p<0.0001). After adjustments, mortality risk was dependent on age (1.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.07; p = 0.002), 25 vitamin D (0.43; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.81; p = 0.006) and no access to PTX (4.13; 95% CI, 2.16 to 7.88; p<0.0001). Results remained the same in a second model using the PTX date as the study start date for the PTX group.ConclusionsOur data confirms the benefit of PTX on mortality in patients with severe SHPT. The high mortality encountered in our population is significant and urges the need to better treat these patients.
Sepsis-induced organ failure is characterized by a massive inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in approximately half of patients in septic shock, and the mortality associated with sepsis-induced AKI is unacceptably high. Klotho is a protein expressed by renal cells and has anti-senescence properties. Klotho has also been shown to protect the kidneys in ischemia-reperfusion injury and to have antioxidant properties. To analyze the role of Klotho in sepsis-related organ dysfunction and AKI, we used a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis in heterozygous Klotho-haploinsufficient mice and their wild-type littermates (CLP- Kl/+ and CLP-WT mice, respectively). In comparison with the CLP-WT mice, CLP- Kl/+ mice showed lower survival, impaired renal function, impaired hepatic function, greater oxidative stress, upregulation of inflammatory pathways (at the systemic and kidney tissue levels), and increased NF-κB activation. It is noteworthy that CLP- Kl/+ mice also showed lower heart-rate variability, less sympathetic activity, impaired baroreflex sensitivity to sodium nitroprusside, and a blunted blood pressure response to phenylephrine. We also demonstrated that sepsis creates a state of acute Klotho deficiency. Given that low Klotho expression exacerbates sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction, Klotho might play a protective role in sepsis, especially in elderly individuals in whom Klotho expression is naturally reduced.
Cancer patients are living longer. The sequelae of cancer treatment and the role of comorbid conditions present before the diagnosis, such as CKD, have been increasingly recognized. The interface between CKD and cancer is multifaceted. CKD is frequently observed in patients with cancer, and cancer treatment contributes to CKD development and progression. In addition, CKD has been recognized as an important risk factor for cancer development and reduced specific cancer survival. In this context, an accurate evaluation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during oncologic treatment is pivotal and is used to define surgery strategies, program prophylactic management of contrasted examinations, make decisions on cisplatin eligibility, and adjust drug prescriptions, particularly chemotherapy agents. Although the most commonly used equations to estimate GFR based on serum creatinine levels in clinical practice (Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study, and CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equations) have not been validated in patients with cancer in large prospective studies, there is increasingly evidence supporting the use of CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation to assess the GFR in patients with cancer, including for the use of chemotherapy prescriptions. Many patients with cancer may have changes in nutrition status and clearance measurements such as exogenous filtration markers might be extremely useful when clinical decisions differ depending on the GFR level. Future perspectives include the advent of new serum GFR biomarkers such as cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin as well as the GFR assessment by measuring total kidney parenchymal volume through image examinations.
Bone tissue engineering seeks to adequately restore functions related to physical and biological properties, aiming at a repair process similar to natural bone. The use of compatible biopolymers, such as bacterial cellulose (BC), as well as having interesting mechanical characteristics, presents a slow in vivo degradation rate, and the ability to be chemically modified. To promote better bioactivity towards BC, we synthesized an innovative BC membrane associated to hydroxyapatite (HA) and anti-bone morphogenetic protein antibody (anti-BMP-2) (BC-HA-anti-BMP-2). We present the physical-chemical, biological and toxicological characterization of BC-HA-anti-BMP-2. Presence of BC and HA components in the membranes was confirmed by SEM-EDS and FTIR assays. No toxic potential was found in MC3T3-E1 cells by cytotoxicity assays (XTT Assay and Clonogenic Survival), genotoxicity (Comet Assay) and mutagenicity (Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus Test). The in vitro release kinetics of anti-BMP-2 antibodies detected gradually reducing antibody levels, reducing approximately 70% in 7 days and 90% in 14 days. BC-HA-anti-BMP-2 increased SPP1 , BGLAP , VEGF , ALPL , RUNX2 and TNFRSF11B expression, genes involved in bone repair and also increased mineralization nodules and phosphatase alcalin (ALP) activity levels. In conclusion, we developed BC-HA-anti-BMP-2 as an innovative and promising biomaterial with interesting physical-chemical and biological properties which may be a good alternative to treatment with commercial BMP-2 protein.
Annually, some 500,000 people are hospitalized with brain lesions acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Brazil. Between 75,000 and 100,000 individuals die within hours of the event and 70,000 to 90,000 evolve to irreversible loss of some neurological function. The principal causes of TBI include motor vehicle accidents (50%), falls (21%), assaults and robberies (12%) and accidents during leisure activities (10%). Within this context, cognitive rehabilitation, a clinical area encompassing interdisciplinary action aimed at recovery as well as compensation of cognitive functions altered as a result of cerebral injury, is extremely important for these individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the basic concepts related to TBI, including mechanisms of injury, severity levels of TBI, the most common findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors, and the most frequent cognitive impairments following TBI, and also to discuss the strategies used to handle patients post-TBI. The study results yielded relevant information on a structured cognitive rehabilitation service, representing an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI, enabling the generation of multiple research protocols.
Calcium phosphate cement has been widely investigated as a bone graft substitute due to its excellent self-setting ability, biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and moldability. In addition, mesoporous materials have been studied as potential materials for application in medical devices due to their large surface area, which is capable of loading numerous biological molecules, besides being bioactive. In this study, bone β-TCP-MCPM-based injectable cement with mesoporous silica particles was synthesized and characterized in terms of its mechanical properties, microstructure, porosity, injectability, in vitro bioactivity and degradability; together with toxicity effects in CHO-K1 cell culture. The results showed that the β-TCP-MCPM cement is bioactive after soaking in simulated body fluid solution, and mesoporous silica particles provided better physicochemical properties compared with silica-free cement. Toxicity assays showed low CHO-K1 cell viability after treatment with more concentrated extracts (200 mg ml). However, this behavior did not compromise the reproductive capacity and did not promote significant DNA damage in those cells. In conclusion, the β-TCP-MCPM cement associated with mesoporous silica might be considered as a potential bone substitute for the repair and regeneration of bone defects.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness), behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability) and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
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