RESUMO.-[Aspectos patológicos e distribuição de 78 neoplasias metastáticas ou multicêntricas envolvendo o sistema nervoso central de caninos.] Neoplasias secundárias envolvendo o sistema nervoso central (SNC) podem ocorrer por via hematógena ou por extensão direta. A ocorrência desta condição vem aumentando devido à expectativa de vida mais longa dos cães, bem como através do uso de quimioterápicos, os quais podem ampliar a sobrevida e, portanto, as chances para a ocorrência de metástases. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos, como idade, raça e sexo dos animais afetados, bem como caracterizar os achados macroscópicos e microscópicos de neoplasmas com metástases envolvendo o SNC de 78 caninos e, baseado nestes dados, estimar a ocorrência e a frequência de neoplasias metastáticas ou multicêntricas. Fêmeas (71,79%) foram mais afetadas do que machos, com uma idade média de 9,5 anos e mediana de 10 anos. A maior parte dos casos apresentava distribuição multifocal (73,07%), e neoplasias de origem epitelial (50%) foram as mais frequentes. A localização neuroanatômica mais afetada foi o telencéfalo (61,1%). As neoplasias mamárias foram as mais frequentes (47,44%), seguidas por hemangiossarcoma (19,23%), linfoma (10,26%) e melanoma (6,41%). Osteossarcoma, sarcoma histiocítico e carcinoma pulmonar (2,56%) foram neoplasias menos frequentes. Os tipos de neoplasmas mamários mais observados foram o carcinoma anaplásico e o carcinoma micropapilar, nesses ABSTRACT.-Heck L.C., Cony F.G., Bianchi M.V., Driemeier D., Sonne L. & Pavarini S.P. 2018. Pathological features of 78 metastatic or multicentric neoplasms involving the central nervous system in dogs. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 38 (10)1989-1998. Setor de Patologia Secondary neoplasms affecting the central nervous system (CNS) may occur through blood flow or direct extension. This condition occurrence has increased both due to a longer life expectancy of dogs, as well as with the employment of chemotherapeutics, which may increase the survival period and, thus, the odds of the occurrence of metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological features, such as the age, breed and sex of the animals affected, as well as the gross and microscopic findings of the metastasis from neoplasms involving the CNS of 78 dogs, and, based on the data, estimate the occurrence and frequency of the metastatic or multicentric neoplasms. Females (71.79%) were most affected than males, with an average age of 9.5-years-old and a median of 10-years-old. Most of the cases had a multifocal distribution (73.07%), and epithelial neoplasms (50%) were the most common. Telencephalon was the most affected neuroanatomical region (61.1%). Mammary neoplasms were the most frequent (47.44%), followed by hemangiosarcoma (19.23%), lymphoma (10.26%) and melanoma (6.41%). Less common neoplasms included osteosarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma and lung carcinoma (2.56%). Mammary neoplasms were mainly composed of anaplastic and micropapillary carcinomas, of which only multifo...
ResumoNa literatura internacional, a experiência de quase-morte (EQM) é avaliada principalmente por meio do instrumento The Near-Death Experience Scale (NDE), elaborado por Bruce Greyson, em 1983. O objetivo do presente estudo é verificar a existência de equivalência semântica entre a versão original da escala (em inglês) e a versão traduzida ao português do Brasil, avaliando os significados geral e referencial. Após as diversas etapas de avaliação da equivalência semântica, a escala foi pré-testada em seis pacientes internados após alta de um Centro de Tratamento Intensivo (CTI) de um Hospital Universitário. Na avaliação realizada por dois psicólogos e dois psiquiatras, constatou-se existir equivalência semântica entre a versão final em português e o original. Na aplicação da escala na população-alvo, verificou-se boa compreensão dos itens. Portanto, a escala está adequada à cultura brasileira, podendo ser utilizada para pesquisas sobre Experiências de Quase-Morte neste contexto. Palavras-chave: Experiência de Quase-Morte (EQM), Equivalência Semântica, Escala. Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Near-Death Experience Scale AbstractIn the international literature, near-death experiences are often measured by The Near-Death Experience Scale (NDE), developed by Bruce Greyson in 1983. The aim of this study is to verify the existence of the semantic equivalence between the original version (in English) and the translated version to Brazilian Portuguese, evaluating both the general and the referential meaning. The semantic evaluation was conducted according to the several steps. Thereafter, a pre-testing was performed in six post Intensive Care Unit patients of a University Hospital. The evaluations of two psychologists and two psychiatrists have found existence of semantic equivalence between the Brazilian and the original version of the scale. The pre-test applied on the target population proved the items were intelligible. Our findings suggest that the Brazilian version of the NDE might be used in the investigation of near-death experience in Brazilian culture.
We characterized the immunohistochemical expression profiles of dysgerminomas from a 16-y-old maned wolf and 13 domestic dogs using the following biomarkers: Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), c-kit, and vimentin. The maned wolf had nonspecific and long-standing clinical signs of lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss, and was euthanized because of poor prognosis. At autopsy, the left ovary was effaced by a 12 × 8 × 6 cm mass, comprised of anaplastic cells with a mitotic count of 20 mitoses in 10 high power fields. Dysgerminomas from 7 of 13 domestic dogs had nuclear expression of SALL4. Dysgerminomas from the maned wolf and 2 domestic dogs had both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of SALL4. Cytoplasmic expression of PLAP and OCT3/4 was present in dysgerminomas from the maned wolf and 3 (PLAP) or 4 (OCT3/4) domestic dogs. All dysgerminomas expressed vimentin. Membranous c-kit expression was rare in the dysgerminoma from the maned wolf, and variable in dysgerminomas from 4 domestic dogs. A dysgerminoma from a domestic dog had cytoplasmic expression of c-kit. SALL4 is a useful marker to confirm germ cell origin of dysgerminoma in canids.
Interstitial lung diseases are a group of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases that include interstitial lung fibrosis. The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical and pathological findings of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in three cats and to investigate possible etiological agents through bacteriological and mycological exams and immunohistochemistry. All three cats were female and aged from 10 to 14 years old, they presented with a clinical history of weight loss and dyspnea. The radiographic changes were similar in all cats and included increased pulmonary radiopacity with a mixed bronchointerstitial pattern progressing to an alveolar pattern. Two cats died during lung biopsy procedures. At necropsy, the lesions were limited to the pulmonary parenchyma and were firm, hypocrepitant with a multinodular appearance on the pleural surface; they failed to completely collapse when the thorax was opened. In the pleural region, there were multifocal star-shaped scarring lesions, with parenchymal retraction. Microscopically, all three cats had multifocal-to-coalescing fibrosis, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, hypertrophy or hyperplasia of the smooth muscle tissue of terminal bronchioles and an accumulation of macrophages within the alveolar spaces. There was no growth on bacteriological or mycological cultures, and the immunohistochemical evaluations for the presence of viral etiological agents (FIV, FeLV, FCoV, FCV and FHV-1) were also negative.
Cardiomyopathies are considered one of the most important causes of heart failure in cats and are subdivided into three main morphological types: hypertrophic (HCM), dilated (DCM), and restrictive (RCM). This study aimed to determine the frequency and types of cardiomyopathies in cats diagnosed in southern Brazil, with an emphasis on their epidemiological and pathological aspects. Necropsy reports filed in a veterinary pathology laboratory were reviewed, and cats diagnosed with cardiomyopathy were selected for the study. Animal identification data, history and clinical signs, and gross lesions, were reviewed and compiled. During the study period, 1.594 cat necropsies were performed, of which 72 (4.5%) comprised a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy. HCM was the most frequent followed by CMR and CMD, representing 77.8%, 12.5% and 9.7%, respectively. Age ranged from three months to 18 years, with a median age of seven years. In relation to sex, 62.5% were males and 37.5% females. In 76.4% of the cases, it affected cats without a breed defined. Restrictive mixed dyspnea and hydrothorax were the main signs or findings of the clinical examination. Sudden death and acute paresis of the pelvic limbs due to aortic thromboembolism have also been described. In HCM, myocardial thickening was observed, with a reduction in the ventricular chamber. Hypertrophy, disarray, and fibrosis of the myofibers were the main histological findings. In RCM, whitish and thickened endocardium was seen in most cases. DCM was characterized by dilated cardiac chambers, and microscopic examination revealed no significant findings. The main extra cardiac lesions revealed pulmonary edema and congestion, hydrothorax and chronic passive congestion of the liver. Cardiomyopathies are important causes of death in cats and should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with cardio respiratory clinical signs and in cases related to sudden death and acute paresis of the pelvic limbs.
Left ventricular false tendons are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that transverse the ventricular cavity and have no attachment to the mitral valve in many species. In cats it is considered a congenital defect that is rarely related to clinical disease and death in adult cats. A 45 days-old mixed breed cat had a history of inappetence since birth. At the physical exam the patient was lethargic and presented restrictive dyspnoea. At necropsy, there were marked ascites, hydrothorax, hepatomegaly with enhanced lobular pattern (nutmeg liver), and the lungs were markedly diminished (compressive pulmonary atelectasis). The heart was enlarged due to marked dilation of the cardiac chambers. Moreover, multiple slightly whitish and irregular cord-like structures were connecting the posterior papillary muscle to the interventricular septum (excessive moderator bands /left ventricular false tendons) at the left ventricle. Microscopically, these structures were characterized by a marked proliferation of fibrous connective tissue intermixed with Purkinje cells and well-differentiated cardiomyocytes lined by a single layer of endocardium. This study described a case of excessive moderator bands (left ventricular false tendons) in a young cat associated with congestive heart failure and death.
Background: Hemangiosarcoma is a primary malignant neoplasm of vascular endothelial cells, common in dogs and uncommon in cats. It is characterized by being aggressive and presenting high metastatic behavior. It corresponds to 0.5% to 2% of all feline neoplasms, with more reports in shorthaired cats aged between 8 and 12.2 years old, with no predisposition for sex or breed. Among the diagnostic methods, histopathological and immunohistochemical exams stand out because they are more accurate, since the result of fine-needle aspiration biopsy is usually hidden by blood contamination. This report aims to describe a case of a hemangiosarcoma in a cat's tongue.Case: A 9-year-old, female, shorthair cat with a history of weight loss, lethargy, chewing difficulty with the evolution of three months and two-day oral bleeding was attended. Physical examination revealed blood in the oral cavity, enlargement, and darkening of the tongue surface, normalized oral and ocular mucous membranes, estimated dehydration of 7%, a rectal temperature of 38,8°C, and pulmonary and cardiac auscultation without changes. The cat was hospitalized, and euthanasia was elected. Cytological and histopathological exams of the tongue were requested, which revealed a neoplastic proliferation of endothelial cells expanding and replacing the muscular layer of the tongue, forming primitive vascular structures filled with a large number of red blood cells and supported by a delicate fibrovascular stroma. There were moderate anisocytosis and anisocariosis and rare figures of mitosis. Immunohistochemical examination showed the expression of von Willebrand factor, smooth muscle vimentin, and actin in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells, and negative staining for pancitokeratin.Discussion: According to the results of cytological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations, the cat was diagnosed with tongue hemangiosarcoma. The involvement of the tongue in cases of feline hemangiosarcoma is not commonly reported, as the oral cavity is an uncommon site of neoplasm in cats and hemangiossarcoma neoplasm is considered rare in this species. The cytological examination of the patient's tongue was useful to suggest the diagnosis of sarcoma due to a large number of neoplastic cells present in the sample, and later, because it is more specific, the histopathological examination was performed to find out the origin of the tissue. The definitive diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma could be confirmed by the alterations found in the histopathological and immunohistochemical exams. The appearance of erythrocytes within tumor vascular channels, the rapid mass development, moderate anisocytosis, anisocariosis, and irregularity of vascular channels, along with the expression of smooth muscle action, excluded the differential diagnosis of hemangioma and lymphangiosarcoma. Due to the ability of the hemangiosarcoma to be a primary or metastatic tumor and the performance of the necropsy examination was not authorized, we could not determinate the primary origin of the tumor. However, we suggest in the present study that the neoplasm is primary of the tongue because there are no skin lesions or alterations in other organs, besides the tongue is not a common site of metastasis. In conclusion, hemangiosarcoma should be included as a differential diagnosis in cases of tongue neoplasia, although uncommon in felines, and that histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations are indispensable to define an accurate diagnosis.
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