Two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and monolayer hexagonal BN (h-BN), are attractive for demonstrating fundamental physics in materials and potential applications in next-generation electronics. Atomic sheets containing hybridized bonds involving elements B, N and C over wide compositional ranges could result in new materials with properties complementary to those of graphene and h-BN, enabling a rich variety of electronic structures, properties and applications. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of large-area atomic layers of h-BNC material, consisting of hybridized, randomly distributed domains of h-BN and C phases with compositions ranging from pure BN to pure graphene. Our studies reveal that their structural features and bandgap are distinct from those of graphene, doped graphene and h-BN. This new form of hybrid h-BNC material enables the development of bandgap-engineered applications in electronics and optics and properties that are distinct from those of graphene and h-BN.
The role of TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cell dissemination is well established, but the involvement of lncRNAs in TGF-β signaling is still unknown. In this study, we observed that the lncRNA-activated by TGF-β (lncRNA-ATB) was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastases and associated with poor prognosis. lncRNA-ATB upregulated ZEB1 and ZEB2 by competitively binding the miR-200 family and then induced EMT and invasion. In addition, lncRNA-ATB promoted organ colonization of disseminated tumor cells by binding IL-11 mRNA, autocrine induction of IL-11, and triggering STAT3 signaling. Globally, lncRNA-ATB promotes the invasion-metastasis cascade. Thus, these findings suggest that lncRNA-ATB, a mediator of TGF-β signaling, could predispose HCC patients to metastases and may serve as a potential target for antimetastatic therapies.
Vaccination with recent seasonal nonadjuvanted or adjuvanted influenza vaccines induced little or no cross-reactive antibody response to 2009 H1N1 in any age group. Persons under the age of 30 years had little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies to the pandemic virus. However, a proportion of older adults had preexisting cross-reactive antibodies.
2 Molecular design of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) is of vital importance for highefficiency organic solar cells. The branched alkyl chain modification is often regarded as a counter-intuitive approach as which may introduce undesirable steric hindrance that reduces charge transport in NFAs. Here we show the design and synthesis of a highly efficient NFA family by substituting the beta position of thiophene unit on Y6-based A-DAD-A backbone with branched alkyl chains. It was found that such modification of different alkyl chain length could completely change the molecular packing behavior of NFAs, leading to improved structure order and charge transport in thin films. Unprecedented efficiency of 18.32% (certified value of 17.9%) with a fill factor of 81.5% is achieved for single-junction organic solar cells. This work reveals the importance of branched alkyl chain topology in tuning the molecular packing and blend morphology that leads to improved organic photovoltaic performance.
OBJECTIVE-Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in animal models. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between its serum levels and various cardiometabolic parameters in humans.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-A newly developedimmunoassay was used to measure serum FGF21 levels in 232 Chinese subjects recruited from our previous cross-sectional studies. The mRNA expression levels of FGF21 in the liver and adipose tissues were quantified by real-time PCR.RESULTS-Serum FGF21 levels in overweight/obese subjects were significantly higher than in lean individuals. Serum FGF21 correlated positively with adiposity, fasting insulin, and triglycerides but negatively with HDL cholesterol, after adjusting for age and BMI. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an independent association between serum FGF21 and the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, the increased risk of the metabolic syndrome associated with high serum FGF21 was over and above the effects of individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Our in vitro study detected a differentiation-dependent expression of FGF21 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and human adipocytes. In db/db obese mice, FGF21 mRNA expression was markedly increased in both the liver and adipose tissue compared with that in their lean littermates. Furthermore, FGF21 expression in subcutaneous fat correlated well with its circulating concentrations in humans.CONCLUSIONS-FGF21 is a novel adipokine associated with obesity-related metabolic complications in humans. The paradoxical increase of serum FGF21 in obese individuals, which may be explained by a compensatory response or resistance to FGF21, warrants further investigation.
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