Abstract:A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a "Bond-Blocking" method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS) as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N 2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA) topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME), exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction).
The onset of depression and anxiety during the antenatal stage of pregnancy is common. Despite the conception of numerous interventions in the past decades, studies show no signs of decline in the prevalence of antenatal depression and anxiety. Recently, the use of midwife-supported psychotherapy to treat these psychosomatic disorders has garnered a lot of attention. However, no attempt to date has been made to synthesize the evidence evaluating the influence of midwife-supported psychotherapy on antenatal depression, anxiety, and overall maternal health-status. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to demonstrate the effectiveness of midwife-supported psychotherapy on depression, anxiety, and maternal health-status outcome during the antenatal stage of pregnancy. A systematic identification of literature was performed according to PRISMA guidelines on four academic databases: MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and CENTRAL. A meta-analysis evaluated the influence of midwife-supported psychotherapy on depression, anxiety, and maternal health-status outcome as compared to conventional obstetric care. Of the 1,011 records, 17 articles, including 6,193 pregnant women (mean age: 28.9±2.2 years) were included in this meta-analysis. Eleven studies compared the effects of midwife-supported therapy on depression, 14 compared its effects on anxiety and 2 compared its effects on maternal health-status outcome. The meta-analysis reveals the beneficial effects of midwife-supported psychotherapy for reducing depression (Hedge's g:-0.9), anxiety (-0.8) and enhancing maternal health-status outcome (0.1), as compared to conventional obstetric care. The current systematic review and meta-analysis recommend the use of midwife-supported psychotherapy for the reduction of depression, anxiety and enhancing maternal health-status during the antenatal stage of pregnancy.
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