Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fi fty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into fi ve ecological zones (strata), where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in fl oristic composition between ecological zones with richness diff ering signifi cantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. Th ese climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. Th e importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.
Loopers such as Chrysodeixis includens (Walker), Rachiplusia nu (Guenée), and Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) are important defoliators in soybean, sunflower, and crucifer crops, respectively, in countries of the Americas. The biotic potential of these polyphagous species of Plusiinae was comparatively examined considering crop rotation and succession scenarios in which crucifer crops are cultivated during or after Brazilian winter. All the species developed and reproduced on soybean (BRS 133 Embrapa) and forage turnip (Cati AL 1000, Wolf Seeds do Brasil). The development of C. includens was similar on both host plants. The survival of R. nu was lower on forage turnip than on soybean. In contrast, T. ni performance (survival, fecundity, pupal weight) was better on forage turnip than on soybean. This suggests that in crop rotation and succession scenarios of soybean after brassicacea, C. includens is likely to have a higher number of generations per year and could be potentially more harmful.
A survey of ferns and lycophytes of the Coastal Region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (CRRS) was performed based on fi eld work and collections of the main regional herbaria. Th e following were evaluated for each species: preferential habits (terrestrial, epiphytic or aquatic), geographic distribution patterns and habitats (forest, grassland, and wetland). Th e occurrence of a latitudinal gradient in diversity was tested over fi ve latitudinal ranges using the Sørensen Similarity Index. A total of 17 lycophyte and 206 fern species representing 28 families was found between the latitudes of 29° and 34°S. Exclusively terrestrial species were predominant (162), with the majority (113) exhibiting wide Neotropical distributions, followed by species that also occurred in the state of Paraná (44). Th e forest habitat harbored the greatest number of species (159), while grasslands had the fewest (26). Cluster analysis showed pronounced fl oristic diff erentiation among latitudinal Ranges III (31°01' to 32°S) and IV (32°01' to 31°S), with a similarity index of only 0.41. Our results demonstrate a strong north-to-south reduction in species richness in the study area, which is related to environmental conditions along the latitudinal gradient and, especially, microclimatic diff erences in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes.
The shortage of reliable primary taxonomic data limits the description of biological taxa and the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes, complicating biogeographical, ecological, and evolutionary studies. This deficit creates a significant taxonomic impediment to biodiversity research and conservation planning. The taxonomic impediment and the biodiversity crisis are widely recognized, highlighting the urgent need for reliable taxonomic data. Over the past decade, numerous countries worldwide have devoted considerable effort to Target 1 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC), which called for the preparation of a working list of all known plant species by 2010 and an online world Flora by 2020. Brazil is a megadiverse country, home to more of the world's known plant species than any other country. Despite that, Flora Brasiliensis, concluded in 1906, was the last comprehensive treatment of the Brazilian flora. The lack of accurate estimates of the number of species of algae, fungi, and plants occurring in Brazil contributes to the prevailing taxonomic impediment and delays progress towards the GSPC targets. Over the past 12 years, a legion of taxonomists motivated to meet Target 1 of the GSPC, worked together to gather and integrate knowledge on the algal, plant, and fungal diversity of Brazil. Overall, a team of about 980 taxonomists joined efforts in a highly collaborative project that used cybertaxonomy to prepare an updated Flora of Brazil, showing the power of scientific collaboration to reach ambitious goals. This paper presents an overview of the Brazilian Flora 2020 and provides taxonomic and spatial updates on the algae, fungi, and plants found in one of the world's most biodiverse countries. We further identify collection gaps and summarize future goals that extend beyond 2020. Our results show that Brazil is home to 46,975 native species of algae, fungi, and plants, of which 19,669 are endemic to the country. The data compiled to date suggests that the Atlantic Rainforest might be the most diverse Brazilian domain for all plant groups except gymnosperms, which are most diverse in the Amazon. However, scientific knowledge of Brazilian diversity is still unequally distributed, with the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado being the most intensively sampled and studied biomes in the country. In times of “scientific reductionism”, with botanical and mycological sciences suffering pervasive depreciation in recent decades, the first online Flora of Brazil 2020 significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of taxonomic data available for algae, fungi, and plants from Brazil. This project also made all the information freely available online, providing a firm foundation for future research and for the management, conservation, and sustainable use of the Brazilian funga and flora.
Resumo Um inventário de samambaias e licófitas da Reserva Biológica Estadual Mata Paludosa (REBIO Mata Paludosa), Itati, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, é apresentado. Durante o período de um ano, as espécies ocorrentes na REBIO foram registradas, com amostras coletadas e incorporadas no herbário HUCS. As espécies foram classificadas quanto ao hábito, grau de ameaça e sua ocorrência nas distintas fitofisionomias do Rio Grande do Sul. No total foram encontradas 79 espécies, sendo uma licófita e 78 samambaias. As famílias de maior riqueza florística foram Polypodiaceae (12), Dryopteridaceae, Pteridaceae e Thelypteridaceae (10 espécies cada) e Aspleniaceae (nove). As plantas terrestres foram as mais representativas (64%), seguidas pelas epífitas (28%) e hemiepífitas (8%). A maioria das espécies tem padrão de distribuição amplo no Rio Grande do Sul (75%). Encontrou-se populações de cinco espécies localmente ameaçadas de extinção. A REBIO Mata Paludosa representa importantes remanescentes da Mata Atlântica no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, por apresentar elevada riqueza florística de samambaias e licófitas, espécies de distribuição restrita e ameaçadas de extinção localmente.
RESUMO O Pampa representa um dos domínios fitogeográficos de maior riqueza florística da América do Sul; no entanto, principalmente ao que refere às samambaias e licófitas, ainda é muito pouco conhecido. O presente estudo tem como objetivos listar as espécies de samambaias e licófitas associadas aos cerros do Tigre e Palomas e discutir os aspectos florísticos que modelam a flora de samambaias e licófitas nas formações isoladas (Cerros) do domínio do Pampa. As amostras foram coletadas e herborizadas por meio das técnicas usuais, e identificadas com auxílio de literatura específica. Espécimes de herbários também foram analisados a fim de complementar a lista florística. As espécies foram classificadas quanto seu padrão de distribuição geográfica e quanto sua forma de vida e crescimento. O inventário resultou em 36 espécies, sendo quatro licófitas e 32 samambaias, distribuídas em 11 famílias e 19 gêneros. Ao todo, 18 espécies foram exclusivas ao Cerro do Tigre, cinco ao Cerro Palomas e 13 ocorreram em ambas as áreas. A maior parte das espécies tem ampla distribuição na América do Sul (41,02%) e América Tropical (35,89%), e não foram identificadas espécies endêmicas ao domínio pampeano. A forma de vida predominante foi hemicriptófito e a forma de crescimento, o rosulado foi a mais frequente. De forma geral as espécies ocorrentes na área de estudo apresentaram adaptações às condições xerofíticas. Nossos resultados mostraram haver alta riqueza de espécies nas áreas estudadas em relação ao citado para o domínio, e que os Cerros servem como refúgios para manutenção da flora de samambaias e licófitas na região.
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