Summary :The present work, studied the effect of 0, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 mg of garlic powder/kg dry ration for Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae), weighting 73.6 ± 39.4 g and measuring 15.0 ± 2.7 cm, fed for a period of 15, 30 and 45 days. Fifteen days after treatment with 1,000 and 2,000 mg of garlic/kg dry ration, significant reduction of Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) in the gills was related. Nevertheless, the addition of garlic to the ration caused significant increase in the erythrocyte number and in the thrombocyte percentage in the circulating blood. However, a decrease in the lymphocyte percentage was also observed. After 45 days, fish fed with garlic showed significant increase in the erythrocyte number, leucocyte, haemoglobin rate, hematocrit and thrombocyte.
The reference intervals for biochemical variables and red blood cell indices of healthy intensively bred channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were determined. The blood variables were determined using standardized clinical methods. The reference intervals (25th and 75th percentiles) were established using a non-parametric method. Reference intervals for plasma glucose, serum total protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride concentration, primary and secondary red blood cell indices were established. The haematological and biochemical reference intervals established may allow important clinical decisions about channel catfish.
Abstract. Light traveling through a liquid crystal with disclinations perceives a geometrical background which causes lensing effects similar to the ones predicted for cosmic objects like global monopoles and cosmic strings. In this article we explore the effective geometry as perceived by light in such media. The comparison between both systems suggests that experiments can be done in the laboratory to simulate optical properties, like gravitational lensing, of cosmic objects.PACS. 61.30.Jf Defects in liquid crystals -61.30.Dk Continuum models and theories of liquid crystal structure -78.20.Bh Theory, models, and numerical simulation -02.40.-k Geometry, differential geometry, and topology
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