RESUMO O uso de água salina na irrigação torna-se importante alternativa diante da escassez de água de boa qualidade em todo o mundo. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) possui baixa exigência hídrica, sobrevive e apresenta produção satisfatória em solos de baixa fertilidade. No entanto, a sua produção é maior em cultivos irrigados, o que reforça a necessidade de desenvolvimento de pesquisas para uso de água salina. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação nas características morfofisiológicas de mudas de pinhão-manso. Para isso, foi conduzido experimento em casa de vegetação com interceptação de 50 % da radiação solar, localizada na Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Ipameri, Goiás. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos com capacidade de 4 L de solo, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. As plantas foram irrigadas diariamente com 150 mL de água não salina, durante os 30 primeiros dias após a germinação das sementes. Do 31º ao 50º dia, as plantas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos: plantas diariamente irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica igual a 0,5; 8; 16 e 24 dS m -1 . Aos 50 dias após a germinação, analisaram-se as seguintes características nas mudas de pinhão-manso: número de folhas; altura de planta; diâmetro de ramo; teor relativo de água; área foliar; clorofila total; razões de massa radicular, massa caulinar, massa foliar e parte aérea/sistema radicular; e biomassa total. Os resultados evidenciaram que as mudas de pinhão-manso irrigadas com água de condutividade elétrica 8 dS m -1 não apresentaram redução do crescimento vegetativo. Todavia, a água de irrigação com condutividade elétrica 16 dS m -1 causou redução no crescimento vegetativo e elevou a senescência e abscisão foliar. Água com condutividade elétrica < 8 dS m -1 pode ser utilizada parairrigar plantas de pinhão-manso na fase de mudas.Termos de indexação: condutividade elétrica, tolerância à salinidade, irrigação, Jatropha curcas L.
Trends and gaps in the global scientific literature about Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), a tropical plant of economic importanceTendências e lacunas na literatura científica global sobre Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), uma planta tropical de importância econômica Abstract Jatropha curcas L., popularly known as the physic nut, is a monoecious, perennial lactiferous species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. Recently, interest in this species has been growing, due to its ability to flourish on degraded land and in soils with low natural fertility, the high oil content of its seeds, its rapid growth and easy propagation, and the identification of several secondary metabolites with medicinal importance. This study aims to report the main trends and gaps in the global scientific literature about J. curcas L, using a scientometric analysis. We have carried out this scientometric analysis on the global literature to identify: 1) temporal publication trends; 2) the quality of scientific production, estimated using citation numbers and journal impact factors; 3) the main journals and countries interested in this topic and the language of scientific divulgation; 4) the main research fields; 5) the use of wild or commercial cultivars; and 6) average authorship levels and international collaboration networks.Our findings have revealed a continuous increase in both quantitative and qualitative parameters in studies about J. curcas. The main trends in physic nut studies involve biofuel production and the plant's agronomic characteristics. The main knowledge gaps relating to J. curcas are in the fields of forestry, sustainability, animal nutrition, and genetic improvement. Another problem identified in this study is a lack of commercial seeds; none of the studies analyzed have used commercial seeds. India, Brazil, and China together are responsible for 55% of the knowledge about this species, obtained through scientific production. Only moderate international collaboration has been observed between countries, perhaps as consequence of conflicts of interest. Despite an increasing number of articles, some countries have stopped producing J. curcas L, and the worldwide crop production has decreased.
Trichoderma harzianum isolates have been broadly used for biocontrol of plant diseases caused by fungi. Cladosporium herbarum is a common saprophyte and seed borne fungus, which is easy to manipulate under controlled conditions. It was chosen as a model to test the effectivity of seed treatments with T. harzianum. Common bean seeds (cv. Pérola) contaminated with C. herbarum were treated with conidial suspension (CS) and autoclaved filtrate (AF) of five isolates of T. harzianum and subsequently submitted to health and germination tests. The proportion of normal seedlings formed, the length of roots, hypocotyls and leaves, and total plantlet length, total plantlet biomass, root mass ratio (RMR), stem mass ratio (SMR), leaf mass ratio (LMR), aerial part/root system ratio (AP/RS) and leaf area were also evaluated. Isolates CEN289 and CEN290 (CS and AF) provided 66 to 77% of supression of C. herbarum on seeds and a higher number of normal seedlings as compared with control. It also yielded a higher total biomass of plantlets. Moreover treatment with isolates CEN289 and CEN290 increased root and stem length in the experiments with CS. Such results indicate the potential of T. harzianum for seed treatment and suggest that it should be further tested as control for seed borne fungal diseases and as a plant growth promoter. The better performance found for CEN289 and CEN290 confirms the variability in terms of biocontrol activity among strains of T. harzianum.
The present study aimed to evaluate the initial growth of Passiflora edulis plants under water deficit and inundation. The work was carried out in a greenhouse covered with transparent plastic in pots with a capacity of five liters and filled with 5 kg of substrate composed of oxisol, sand and cattle manure in the proportion of 3:1:1, respectively. The experimental design used was completely randomized, with seven treatments and five repetitions; 30 days after emergence, the plants were irrigated with water equivalent to 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 125%, 150% and 175% of the pot capacity and the analyzes were performed on the 52nd day. The P. edulis plants under limitation and excess water showed high stomatal sensitivity to reduce the water. In addition, under water deficit, the plants showed bigger root growth to maximize water absorption from the soil, but in both stresses the plants demonstrated reduced vegetative growth, that implies retarded establishment, thus, demonstrating an average susceptibility to water deficit and inundation.
Soil salinity is a major abiotic factor limiting crop production but an amendment with compost, zeolite or unisal may mitigate the effects of salinity stress on plants. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of compost, zeolite and unisal on growth of barley plant irrigated with diluted seawater. Barley was the grown on a calcareaus soil treated with compst, zeolite and unisal at the rates of 0 , 4, 8 and 12 % and irrigated with seawater diluted to electrical conductivity (EC) levels of 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 dS m-1 while tap water was as the control (EC = 0.44 dS/m. Irrigation with 5.0 and 7.5 dS m-1 saline waters significantly suppressed fresh and dry weight of barely plants. However, a substantial increase in plant biomass of salt stressed barley was observed with the three amendments followed the order, compost > unisal > unisal. The application of compost, zeolite or unisal also enhanced K + , Ca +2 and Mg +2 absorption and decreased Na + , Cl-and SO4 = in barely shoot. Post-harvest soil analysis showed high EC values of soil due to saline water irrigation but concentrations were lower in soils treated with the tested amendments especially zeolite. The overall results indicated that soil amendment with compost or zeolite could effectively ameliorate salinity stress and improve nutrient balance barley plant grown on a calcareous soil.
The present study objective was identifying mechanisms of response to water deficit of paricá seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in 8-liter pots, with substrate consisting of soil (dystrophic RedYellow Latosol), in randomized block design, with five different irrigations based on the evapotranspiration of the plants (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%), with six replications. The plants were irrigated daily, with a water volume corresponding to 100% of the evapotranspired water, and, at 90 days after germination, subjected to ten days of water deficit, after that irrigated during ten days with the different percentages of evapotranspiration, then evaluated. The following variables were measured: number of leaves (NL), plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), total biomass (TB), total daily transpiration (TDT), total chlorophyll (TC), carotenoids (CAR), root mass ratio (RMR), leaf mass ratio (LMR) stem mass ratio (SMR). Concluded that paricá seedlings response to water deficit with slowing down of dehydration, with reduction of content of carotenoids and increase in root volume. As a consequence of water stress, they reduce the number of leaves, stem diameter, plant height, and, of course, total biomass, aiming at maintaining the internal water, indicating low ability to tolerate stress.
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of water deficit stress on the growth of Dipteryx alata plants. The experiment was carried out on a bench in full sun at the Goiás State University experimental unit, in Ipameri town, Goiás. Dipteryx alata seeds were collected from native plants in that municipality and sown in four-liter pots containing a mixture of soil, sand and cattle manure at ratio 3:1:0.5, respectively. The experiment was set up following the completely randomized design with five treatments (plants irrigated for 25 days with water volumes corresponding to 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of daily evapotranspiration) and six replicates. Treatments were applied when the plants were 60 days old, and at 85 days the plants were assessed for the following parameters: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, foliar chlorophyll concentration (a+b ), total carotenoids, relative water content, transpiration, leaf, stem and root mass ratios, and total biomass. During early development, the Dipteryx alata plants were highly sensitive to water deficit, significantly slowing down vegetative growth. Accordingly, in order to remain alive, the plants drastically reduced transpiration as a result of high stomatal sensitivity.
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