Several previous studies on targeted food items using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Brazil have revealed that many of the items investigated are adulterated; mislabeled or even fraud. Here, we present the first Brazilian isotopic baseline assessment that can be used not only in future forensic cases involving food authenticity, but also in human forensic anthropology studies. The δ13C and δ15N were determined in 1245 food items and 374 beverages; most of them made in Brazil. The average δ13C and δ15N of C3 plants were −26.7 ± 1.5‰, and 3.9 ± 3.9‰, respectively, while the average δ13C and δ15N of C4 plants were −11.5 ± 0.8‰ and 4.6 ± 2.6‰, respectively. The δ13C and δ15N of plant-based processed foods were −21.8 ± 4.8‰ and 3.9 ± 2.7‰, respectively. The average δ13C and δ15N of meat, including beef, poultry, pork and lamb were -16.6 ± 4.7‰, and 5.2 ± 2.6‰, respectively, while the δ13C and δ15N of animal-based processed foods were −17.9 ± 3.3‰ and 3.3 ± 3.5‰, respectively. The average δ13C of beverages, including beer and wine was −22.5 ± 3.1‰. We verified that C-C4 constitutes a large proportion of fresh meat, dairy products, as well as animal and plant-based processed foods. The reasons behind this high proportion will be addressed in this study.
O tráfico de animais é uma ameaça à biodiversidade. Aproximadamente 82% dos animais contrabandeados são aves. Objetivou-se elaborar uma lista das espécies de aves traficadas no Brasil, evidenciando espécies ameaçadas. Para a busca de artigos foram utilizadas as bases de dados Web of Science e Google Scholar. Foram encontradas 45 publicações e 343 espécies oriundas do tráfico de animais. A ordem com maior riqueza é a dos Passeriformes, seguida pelos Psittaciformes. A família Thraupidae apresentou-se expressiva. 29 espécies possuem algum nível de ameaça: seis criticamente em perigo, cinco em perigo e 18 vulneráveis. Ações prioritárias para reduzir o impacto da atividade ilegal sobre essas espécies devem ser priorizadas. A identificação das espécies deve ser feita de modo criterioso, devem ser criados programas específicos para destinação das espécies ameaçadas e utilizadas metodologias genéticas e isótopos estáveis como ferramenta no combate ao tráfico. Educação ambiental e penas mais severas também são recomendadas.
Tissue samples are frequently collected to study various aspects of avian biology, but in many cases these samples are not used in their entirety and are stored by the collector. The already collected samples provide a largely overlooked opportunity because they can be used by different researchers in different biological fields. Broad reuse of samples could result in multispecies or large‐scale studies, interdisciplinary collaborations, and the generation of new ideas, thereby increasing the quality and impact of research. Sample reuse could also reduce the number of new samples needed for a study, which is especially pertinent to endangered species where sample collection is necessarily limited. Importantly, reusing samples may be mutually beneficial for both the researchers providing samples and those reusing them. Here, we identify the benefits of sample reuse, describe currently available sources of already collected samples and their limitations, and highlight the wide range of potential applications in a single research field – avian isotopic ecology. To facilitate the reuse of avian samples worldwide and across research fields, we introduce the AviSample Network metadata repository. The main aims of this metadata repository are to collate and provide access to descriptions of available avian tissue samples. We contend that the creation of the AviSample Network metadata repository will provide the opportunity for new collaborations and studies. Moreover, we believe that this will help create research connections between ornithologists across the globe and encourage sample reuse in other fields.
High δ 13 C in human tissues in Brazil indicate high consumption of C 4 -based sources due to the consumption of highly processed food and animal protein. The significant positive correlation between the human developed index (HDI) developed by the United Nations Development Program, and fingernail δ 13 C at the county level proved to be useful as a new proxy in tracking human nutrition. Regions with higher HDI are those with higher consumption of highly processed food.
Spatial patterns of stable isotope ratios can be represented in spatial models called isoscapes, and have been widely used to track biogeochemical processes in natural and anthropic systems. Isoscapes have the potential to improve isotope dissemination and interpretation of spatial patterns, increase scientific results appropriation by non-specialists and improve natural resource management. However, the isoscape approach has not commonly been used in studies performed in the Brazilian context. Isoscapes with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes contribute in areas such as animal migration, forensics, hydrology, and studies on population, community and ecosystem level, among others. Here, we show the well-known global use and applications of isoscapes in different studies worldwide as a background to point out the potential for more Brazilian researchers to employ this approach in their studies, taking advantage of existing methods and filling spatial and methodological gaps. The incorporation of isoscapes may broaden the understanding of mechanisms and processes of major biogeochemical cycles in Brazil, assist in solving crimes, track illicit drug origins, help to detect wild animal trafficking, and increase Brazilian knowledge about the hydrological cycle and animal migration patterns in the Neotropics.
Motivation SIA‐BRA is a data set that compiles stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope ratios of terrestrial and aquatic animals sampled in Brazilian biomes and coastal marine areas. Stable isotope ratios are helpful in animal ecology for several reasons; for instance, they can be used to investigate trophic niches, energy sources (diet tracing) and to track migration patterns. The Neotropics are considered one of the most undersampled regions of the world. Given that Brazil is a continental country where most of the dietary ecology of animal species is under‐assessed, we believe that the SIA‐BRA can provide important complementary information to address this gap in the literature. Additionally, the SIA‐BRA data set allows future investigations to address many questions concerning diet tracing, habitat use, food webs, foraging ecology, physiological aspects and effects of phylogeny on dietary ecology. Main type of variable investigated Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios for terrestrial and aquatic animals. Spatial location and grain The SIA‐BRA included animal tissues sampled in 964 sites in the main Brazilian biomes and coastal marine areas. Time period The data represent information published and/or sampled from 1984 to 2021. Major taxa studied and measurement level The SIA‐BRA contains isotopic data of c. 21,804 non‐captive wildlife specimens, excluding livestock production or laboratory experiments. They were 13,881 vertebrates and 7,923 invertebrates. They were divided into the following habitats: terrestrial (30% of the total), freshwater (27%), oceanic (40%) and estuarine (4%). There were 11 phyla, with a clear dominance of Chordata (64%) and Arthropoda (29%), 36 classes, 154 orders, 473 families, 894 genera and 1,157 species. Software format Data are supplied as a comma‐delimited text file (.csv).
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