Results from clinical studies suggest that more than half of the 166 million dental restorations that were placed in the United States in 2005 were replacements for failed restorations. This emphasis on replacement therapy is expected to grow as dentists use composite as opposed to dental amalgam to restore moderate to large posterior lesions. Composite restorations have higher failure rates, more recurrent caries, and increased frequency of replacement as compared to amalgam. Penetration of bacterial enzymes, oral fluids, and bacteria into the crevices between the tooth and composite undermines the restoration and leads to recurrent decay and premature failure. Under in vivo conditions the bond formed at the adhesive/dentin interface can be the first defense against these noxious, damaging substances. The intent of this article is to review structural aspects of the clinical substrate that impact bond formation at the adhesive/dentin interface; to examine physico-chemical factors that affect the integrity and durability of the adhesive/dentin interfacial bond; and to explore how these factors act synergistically with mechanical forces to undermine the composite restoration. The article will examine the various avenues that have been pursued to address these problems and it will explore how alterations in material chemistry could address the detrimental impact of physico-chemical stresses on the bond formed at the adhesive/dentin interface.
The Drosophila buzzatii cluster is composed of seven cactophilic species and their known geographical distribution encompasses the open vegetation diagonal, which includes the morphoclimatic Domains of the Caatinga, Chaco and Cerrado, which are situated between the Amazon and the Atlantic forests. Besides these areas, these cactophilic species are also found in a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast from northeastern Brazil to the southern tip of the country. The hypothesis of vicariant events, defining the core areas of each species, is proposed to explain the historical diversification for the cluster. The intraspecific analysis for the cluster shows a population structure with gene flow restricted by distance, range expansion with secondary contact resulting in introgression and simpatry, especially in the limits of the species distribution, polytypic populations and assortative mating in inter population experiments. There is a variation related to these events that depends on the species and geographic origin of the population analyzed. These events are, hypothetically, described as the results of expansion and retraction of the population ranges, as a consequence of their association with cacti, which theoretically follow the expansion and retraction of dry areas during the paleoclimatic oscillations in South America, as that promoted by the glacial cycles of the Quaternary. The Drosophila buzzatii cluster is divided into two groups. The first one is composed of D. buzzatii, a species that has a broad geographic distribution and no significant differentiation between its populations. The second is the Drosophila serido sibling set, which encompasses the others species and is characterized by a significant potential for differentiation.
Metaphase chromosomes from neuroblasts of strains from both laboratory stocks and natural populations of D. serido, D. meridionalis, D. borborema and D. buzzatii have been studied using colcemid pretreatment, and air-drying followed by Giemsa staining. The two latter species both show a uniform 'basic' metaphase karyotype. D. serido and D. meridionalis, on the other hand, both include a number of different, geographically distinct, metaphase karyotypes involving differences in the major blocks of constitutive heterochromatin present on the sex chromosomes and/or the 6th chromosome (microchromosome). These chromosomal differences are largely due to the acquisition of extra heterochromatin though pericentric inversions appear to be responsible for some of the Y-chromosome variants in D. serido. Moreover, the cytological evidence demonstrates that populations of both species are far from continuous in distribution. The extent to which such cytological differences reflect the existence of subspecific or specific complexes with minimal morphological differentiation is under investigation.
We aimed to study patterns of variation and factors influencing the evolutionary dynamics of a satellite DNA, pBuM, in all seven Drosophila species from the buzzatii cluster (repleta group). We analyzed 117 alpha pBuM-1 (monomer length 190 bp) and 119 composite alpha/beta (370 bp) pBuM-2 repeats and determined the chromosome location and long-range organization on DNA fibers of major sequence variants. Such combined methodologies in the study of satDNAs have been used in very few organisms. In most species, concerted evolution is linked to high copy number of pBuM repeats. Species presenting low-abundance and scattered distributed pBuM repeats did not undergo concerted evolution and maintained part of the ancestral inter-repeat variability. The alpha and alpha/beta repeats colocalized in heterochromatic regions and were distributed on multiple chromosomes, with notable differences between species. High-resolution FISH revealed array sizes of a few kilobases to over 0.7 Mb and mutual arrangements of alpha and alpha/beta repeats along the same DNA fibers, but with considerable changes in the amount of each variant across species. From sequence, chromosomal and phylogenetic data, we could infer that homogenization and amplification events involved both new and ancestral pBuM variants. Altogether, the data on the structure and organization of the pBuM satDNA give insights into genome evolution including mechanisms that contribute to concerted evolution and diversification.
Aim The aim of this study was to assess the causal mechanisms underlying populational subdivision in Drosophila gouveai, a cactophilic species associated with xeric vegetation enclaves in eastern Brazil. A secondary aim was to investigate the genetic effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on these environments. Location Dry vegetation enclaves within the limits of the Cerrado domain in eastern Brazil. Methods We determined the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of 55 individuals (representing 12 populations) based on sequence data of a 483‐bp fragment from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene. Phylogenetic and coalescent analyses were used to test for the occurrence of demographic events and to infer the time of divergence amongst genetically independent groups. Results Our analyses revealed the existence of two divergent subclades (G1 and G2) plus an introgressed clade restricted to the southernmost range of D. gouveai. Subclades G1 and G2 displayed genetic footprints of range expansion and segregated geographical distributions in south‐eastern and some central highland regions, east and west of the Paraná River valley. Molecular dating indicated that the main demographic and diversification events occurred in the late to middle Pleistocene. Main conclusions The phylogeographical and genetic patterns observed for D. gouveai in this study are consistent with changes in the distribution of dry vegetation in eastern Brazil. All of the estimates obtained by molecular dating indicate that range expansion and isolation pre‐dated the Last Glacial Maximum, occurring during the late to middle Pleistocene, and were probably triggered by climatic changes during the Pleistocene. The current patchy geographical distribution and population subdivision in D. gouveai is apparently closely linked to these past events.
We have measured nucleotide variation in the CLOCK/CYCLE heterodimer inhibition domain (CCID) of the clock X-linked gene period in seven species belonging to the Drosophila buzzatii cluster, namely D. buzzatii, Drosophila koepferae, Drosophila antonietae, Drosophila serido, Drosophila gouveai, Drosophila seriema and Drosophila borborema. We detected that the purifying selection is the main force driving the sequence evolution in period, in agreement with the important role of CCID in clock machinery. Our survey revealed that period provides valuable phylogenetic information that allowed to resolve phylogenetic relationships among D. gouveai, D. borborema and D. seriema, which composed a polytomic clade in preliminary studies. The analysis of patterns of intraspecific variation revealed two different lineages of period in D. koepferae, probably reflecting introgressive hybridization from D. buzzatii, in concordance with previous molecular data.
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