Crude oil phase behavior and asphaltene precipitation have been studied by two complementary chemical imaging methods for the first time. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging approach has revealed the chemical composition of agglomerated and precipitated asphaltenes upon dilution with a flocculant. Asphaltenes, containing oxygen and nitrogen heteroatomic functional groups, have been detected to be least stable. Aromatic abundant asphaltenes have been observed to have relatively high solubility in crude oil/heptane blends. NMR imaging approach, capable of imaging in the bulk of crude oil samples, has demonstrated that n-heptane causes aggregation which can lead to the stable suspension or to the sedimentation followed by the formation of deposits, depending on flocculant concentration. These processes have been monitored for small and large amounts of heptane added to crude oil. The data obtained by ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging and NMR imaging have been correlated to propose a possible link between the chemical structure of asphaltenes and a mechanism of the formation of deposits.
The impact of tropical cyclones (TCs) on the CO 2 partial pressure at the sea surface (pCO 2sea ) and air-sea CO 2 flux (F CO2 ) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) was quantified based on satellite data and in situ observations between November 2013 and January 2017. The in situ observations were made at the BoB Ocean Acidification mooring buoy. A weak time-mean net source of 55.78 ± 11.16 mmol CO 2 m À2 year À1 at the BoB Ocean Acidification site was estimated during this period. A wide range in increases of pCO 2sea (1.0-14.8 μatm) induced by TCs occurred in postmonsoon (October-December), and large decreases of pCO 2sea (À14.0 μatm) occurred in premonsoon (March-May). Large vertical differences in the ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to total alkalinity (TA) in the upper layer (ΔDIC/TA) were responsible for increasing pCO 2sea in postmonsoon. Relatively small values of ΔDIC/TA were responsible for decreasing pCO 2sea in premonsoon. Five TCs (Hudhud, Five, Kyant, Vardah, and Roanu) were considered. Hudhud significantly enhanced CO 2 efflux (18.49 ± 3.70 mmol CO 2 /m 2 ) in oversaturated areas due to the wind effect during the storm and wind-pump effects after the storm. Vardah insignificantly changed F CO2 (1.22 ± 0.24 mmol CO 2 /m 2 ) in undersaturated areas because of the counteraction of these two effects. Roanu significantly enhanced CO 2 efflux (19.08 ± 3.82 mmol CO 2 /m 2 ) in highly oversaturated conditions (ΔpCO 2 > 20 μatm) since the wind effect greatly exceeded the wind-pump effects. These five TCs were estimated to account for 55 ± 23% of the annual-mean CO 2 annual efflux, suggesting that TCs have significant impacts on the carbon cycle in the BoB.Plain Language Summary We examined the impact by five tropical cyclones on the sea surface pCO 2 and air-sea CO 2 exchange using Bay of Bengal Ocean Acidification moored buoy measurements over the Bay of Bengal. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the different effects of tropical cyclones and vertical differences in the ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon to total alkalinity in the upper layer on the sea surface pCO 2 and local air-sea CO 2 flux.
Nanotechnologies involving physical methods of tumor destruction using functional oligonucleotides are promising for targeted cancer therapy. Our study presents magnetodynamic therapy for selective elimination of tumor cells in vivo using DNA aptamer-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles exposed to a low frequency alternating magnetic field. We developed an enhanced targeting approach of cancer cells with aptamers and arabinogalactan. Aptamers to fibronectin (AS-14) and heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (AS-42) facilitated the delivery of the nanoparticles to Ehrlich carcinoma cells, and arabinogalactan (AG) promoted internalization through asialoglycoprotein receptors. Specific delivery of the aptamer-modified FeAG nanoparticles to the tumor site was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After the following treatment with a low frequency alternating magnetic field, AS-FeAG caused cancer cell death in vitro and tumor reduction in vivo. Histological analyses showed mechanical disruption of tumor tissues, total necrosis, cell lysis, and disruption of the extracellular matrix. The enhanced targeted magnetic theranostics with the aptamer conjugated superparamagnetic ferroarabinogalactans opens up a new venue for making biocompatible contrasting agents for MRI imaging and performing non-invasive anti-cancer therapies with a deep penetrated magnetic field.
Aggregation of asphaltenes
followed by precipitation presents severe
problems for existing technologies in the production, recovery, and
processing of heavy oils. Better understanding of asphaltene behavior
behind the processes of their precipitation and dissolution is vital
to address this issue. While investigating the inhomogeneity of different
oil systems, the reversibility of the asphaltene aggregation process
initiated by flocculant in either asphaltene solution in toluene or
crude heavy oil was revealed and investigated using magnetic resonance
imaging methods. It was found that the inhomogeneous distribution
of the flocculant initiates local spatial-selective asphaltene aggregation
registered in a thin layer around the flocculant/oil sample interface.
The local excess of flocculant concentration over the threshold of
asphaltene precipitation onset is a driving force of this process.
As the flocculant diffuses into the volume of the sample, a decrease
of the asphaltene flocculated area is observed until it disappears
when the equilibrium composition throughout the whole volume of the
system is achieved. Depending on the overall flocculant concentration,
the asphaltene aggregation may not be reversible and could be followed
by subsequent precipitation of the asphaltene aggregates. The similarity
of the phenomena observed for the model asphaltene solutions and crude
heavy oil samples was established. Partial mechanical stirring of
the multicomponent system comprising flocculant and oil or asphaltene
solution does not prevent the formation of the local zones with increased
concentration of asphaltene aggregates; those sizes evolve depending
on the flocculant concentration. The results obtained in this work
are consistent with the generally accepted concept of asphaltene precipitation
reversibility depending on the system composition and are compatible
with the observations obtained by other methods. The approach presented
can provide deeper insight into the asphaltene precipitation reversibility
issue and can facilitate the understanding of asphaltene behavior
in heavy oils.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.