The yellow fever virus (YFV) epidemic in Brazil is the largest in decades. The recent discovery of YFV in Brazilian Aedes species mosquitos highlights a need to monitor the risk of reestablishment of urban YFV transmission in the Americas. We use a suite of epidemiological, spatial, and genomic approaches to characterize YFV transmission. We show that the age and sex distribution of human cases is characteristic of sylvatic transmission. Analysis of YFV cases combined with genomes generated locally reveals an early phase of sylvatic YFV transmission and spatial expansion toward previously YFV-free areas, followed by a rise in viral spillover to humans in late 2016. Our results establish a framework for monitoring YFV transmission in real time that will contribute to a global strategy to eliminate future YFV epidemics.
We investigated the effects of dietary trans fatty acids, PUFA, and SFA on body and liver fat content, liver histology, and mRNA of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. LDL receptor knockout weaning male mice were fed for 16 wk with diets containing 40% energy as either trans fatty acids (TRANS), PUFA, or SFA. Afterwards, subcutaneous and epididymal fat were weighed and histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were assessed according to the Histological Scoring System for NAFLD. PPARalpha, PPARgamma, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Food intake was similar in the 3 groups, although mice fed the TRANS diet gained less weight than those receiving the PUFA diet. Compared with the PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had greater plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, less epididymal and subcutaneous fat, larger livers with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like lesions, and greater liver TC and TG concentrations. Macrosteatosis in TRANS-fed mice was associated with a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and upregulated mRNA related to hepatic fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) and to downregulated MTP mRNA. Diet consumption did not alter hepatic mRNA related to fatty acid oxidation (PPARalpha and CPT-1). In conclusion, compared with PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had less adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance characterized by greater HOMA(IR) index, and NASH-like lesions due to greater hepatic lipogenesis. These results demonstrate the role of trans fatty acid intake on the development of key features of metabolic syndrome.
In pediatric patients submitted to living related liver transplantation, hepatic venous reconstruction is critical because of the diameter of the hepatic veins and the potential risk of twisting of the graft over the line of the anastomosis. The aim of the present study is to present our experience in hepatic venous reconstruction performed in pediatric living related donor liver transplantation. Fifty-four consecutive transplants were performed and two methods were utilized for the reconstruction of the hepatic vein: direct anastomosis of the orifice of the donor left or left and middle hepatic veins and the common orifice of the recipient left and middle hepatic veins (group 1-26 cases), and wide triangular anastomosis after creating a wide triangular orifice in the recipient inferior vena cava at the confluence of all the hepatic veins with an additional longitudinal incision in the inferior angle of the orifice (group 2-28 cases). In group 1, eight patients were excluded because of graft problems in the early postoperative period and five among the remaining 18 patients (27.7%) presented stricture at the site of the hepatic vein anastomosis. All these patients had to be submitted to two or three sessions of balloon dilatations of the anastomoses and in four of them a metal stent had to be placed. The liver histopathological changes were completely reversed by the placement of the stent. Among the 28 patients of the group 2, none of them presented hepatic vein stenosis (p = 0.01). The results of the present series lead to the conclusion that hepatic venous reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation must be preferentially performed by using a wide triangulation on the recipient inferior vena cava, including the orifices of the three hepatic veins. In cases of stenosis, the endovascular dilatation is the treatment of choice followed by stent placement in cases of recurrence.
Based on the biochemical and histological evidence in this pilot study, NAC in combination with MTF appears to ameliorate several aspects of NASH, including fibrosis. Further studies of this form of combination therapy are warranted to assess its potential efficacy.
We concluded that individuals who abuse alcohol, smoke and consume 'maté' have a high prevalence of dysplastic lesions that can be better detected by LCE. Esophagi with unstained areas had an eight-fold higher chance of revealing dysplasia than the uniformly stained ones. LCE is an easy and inexpensive method. It improves the detection of dysplasia and should be added to conventional upper GI endoscopy in patients at risk for SCCE.
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