We conducted comprehensive integrative molecular analyses of the complete set of tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), consisting of approximately 10,000 specimens and representing 33 types of cancer. We performed molecular clustering using data on chromosome-arm-level aneuploidy, DNA hypermethylation, mRNA, and miRNA expression levels and reverse-phase protein arrays, of which all, except for aneuploidy, revealed clustering primarily organized by histology, tissue type, or anatomic origin. The influence of cell type was evident in DNA-methylation-based clustering, even after excluding sites with known preexisting tissue-type-specific methylation. Integrative clustering further emphasized the dominant role of cell-of-origin patterns. Molecular similarities among histologically or anatomically related cancer types provide a basis for focused pan-cancer analyses, such as pan-gastrointestinal, pan-gynecological, pan-kidney, and pan-squamous cancers, and those related by stemness features, which in turn may inform strategies for future therapeutic development.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) constitutes a diverse group of malignancies emerging in the biliary tree. CCAs are divided into three subtypes depending on their anatomical site of origin: intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar (pCCA) and distal (dCCA) CCA 1,2 (Fig. 1). Of note, considered as an independent entity, mixed HCC-CCA tumours are a rare type of liver malignancy sharing features of both iCCA and HCC and presenting an aggressive disease course and poor prognosis 3,4. iCCAs arise above the second-order bile ducts, whereas the point of anatomical distinction between pCCA and dCCA is the insertion of the cystic duct. pCCA and dCCA can also be collectively referred to as 'extrahepatic' (eCCA) 5. In the USA, pCCA is the single largest group, accounting for approximately 50-60% of all CCAs, followed by dCCA (20-30%) and iCCA (10-20%) 1,6,7. CCA is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), comprising approximately 15% of all primary liver tumours and 3% of gastrointestinal cancers 1,6,7. CCAs are usually asymptomatic in early stages and, therefore, often diagnosed when the disease is already in advanced stages, which highly compromises therapeutic options, resulting in a dismal prognosis 1,8. CCA is a rare cancer, but its incidence (0.3-6 per 100,000 inhabitants per year) 1 and mortality (1-6 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, globally 9 , not taking into account specific regions with incidence >6 per 100,000 habitants such as South Korea, China and Thailand) have been increasing in the past few decades worldwide, representing a global health problem. Despite advances in
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, 19-24 nucleotides in length, that regulate gene expression and are expressed aberrantly in most types of cancer. MiRNAs also have been detected in the blood of cancer patients and can serve as circulating biomarkers. It has been shown that secreted miRNAs within exosomes can be transferred from cell to cell and can regulate gene expression in the receiving cells by canonical binding to their target messenger RNAs. Here we show that tumor-secreted miR-21 and miR-29a also can function by another mechanism, by binding as ligands to receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, murine TLR7 and human TLR8, in immune cells, triggering a TLR-mediated prometastatic inflammatory response that ultimately may lead to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, by acting as paracrine agonists of TLRs, secreted miRNAs are key regulators of the tumor microenvironment. This mechanism of action of miRNAs is implicated in tumor-immune system communication and is important in tumor growth and spread, thus representing a possible target for cancer treatment.icroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs, 19-24 nt in length, with gene-expression regulatory functions (1, 2) and are expressed aberrantly in most types of cancer (3, 4). MiRNAs also have been detected in the blood of cancer patients (5, 6) and can serve as circulating biomarkers (7). It has been shown that secreted miRNAs within exosomes can be transferred from cell to cell and can regulate gene expression in the receiving cells (8) by canonical binding to their target messenger RNAs (8, 9). More recently, it has been demonstrated that, in addition to their role as gene-expression regulators, miRNAs also directly interact with proteins (10).Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (namely, murine TLR7 and human TLR8) can recognize and bind viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) sequences on dendritic cells and B lymphocytes, leading to cell activation and cytokine production (11,12). TLRs are a family of receptors through which the mammalian innate immune system recognizes the presence of invading pathogens (13,14). Both murine TLR7 and human TLR8 bind to and are activated by 20-nt-long ssRNAs, which represent physiological ligands for these two receptors (12), located in intracellular endosomes. Circulating mature miRNAs are 19-24 nt in length and could represent tumor-released ligands of TLR7 and TLR8 involved in intercellular communication in the tumor microenvironment. Results and Discussion Identification of Specific miRNAs Released in Cancer Cell-DerivedExosomes. To identify which miRNAs are present in tumor-secreted exosomes, we isolated exosomes from the supernatant of A-549 and SK-MES lung cancer cell lines. First, we assessed the purified supernatant exosome fraction for enrichment in CD9 and CD63, two known exosome markers (SI Appendix, Fig. S1A) (8,15). By performing NanoString analysis, we observed that nine miRNAs (miR-16, -21, -27b, -29a, -133a, -193a-3p, -544, -563, and -1283) were present in exosomes derived from ...
SUMMARY Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, and 81 chromophobe RCC. Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the RCC subtypes reveals distinctive features of each subtype that provide the foundation for the development of subtype-specific therapeutic and management strategies for patients affected with these cancers. Somatic alteration of BAP1, PBRM1, and PTEN and altered metabolic pathways correlated with subtype-specific decreased survival, while CDKN2A alteration, increased DNA hypermethylation, and increases in the immune-related Th2 gene expression signature correlated with decreased survival within all major histologic subtypes. CIMP-RCC demonstrated an increased immune signature, and a uniform and distinct metabolic expression pattern identified a subset of metabolically divergent (MD) ChRCC that associated with extremely poor survival.
Osteosarcoma remains a leading cause of cancer death in adolescents. Treatment paradigms and survival rates have not improved in two decades. Driving the lack of therapeutic inroads, the molecular etiology of osteosarcoma remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have demonstrated far-reaching effects on the cellular biology of development and cancer. Their role in osteosarcomagenesis remains largely unexplored. Here we identify for the first time an miRNA signature reflecting the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma from surgically procured samples from human patients. The signature includes high expression of miR-181a, miR-181b, and miR-181c as well as reduced expression of miR-16, miR-29b, and miR-142-5p. We also demonstrate that miR-181b and miR-29b exhibit restricted expression to distinct cell populations in the tumor tissue. Further, higher expression of miR-27a and miR-181c* in pre-treatment biopsy samples characterized patients who developed clinical metastatic disease. In addition, higher expression of miR-451 and miR-15b in pre-treatment samples correlated with subsequent positive response to chemotherapy. In vitro and in vivo functional validation in osteosarcoma cell lines confirmed the tumor suppressive role of miR-16 and the pro-metastatic role of miR-27a. Furthermore, predicted target genes for miR-16 and miR-27a were confirmed as down-regulated by real-time PCR. Affymetrix array profiling of cDNAs from the osteosarcoma specimens and controls were interrogated according to predicted targets of miR-16, miR142-5p, miR-29b, miR-181a/b, and miR-27a. This analysis revealed positive and negative correlations highlighting pathways of known importance to osteosarcoma, as well as novel genes. Thus, our findings establish a miRNA signature associated with pathogenesis of osteosarcoma as well as critical pre-treatment biomarkers of metastasis and responsiveness to therapy.
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