The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat stress on 12 bean genotypes through the analysis of their reproductive biology in terms of flowering, pollen viability, meiotic behavior, and production. Plants were grown in a climate chamber at 25-20 °C (day and night) and at a high temperature treatment 37-26 °C (day and night) from the vegetative (V4) development stage to physiological maturity. The experimental design was 2 × 12 factorial arrangement with six replications and the factors consisted of heat treatments and genotypes.In three replications, the number of newly opened flowers was checked daily. At physiological maturity, the following traits were evaluated: percentage of pod set, number of pods, number of viable seeds, number of aborted seeds, 100 seed weight, and seed yield (g per plant). The other three replications were used to collect flowers to create slides to study viability of the pollen grain and analyze the meiotic behavior. The heat treatment factor significantly affected the following traits: total number of pollen grains, number of flowers, number of pods, pod set, number of viable seeds, 100 seed weight, and seed yield. The raised temperature reduced these variables, except for percentage of pod set, and increased meiotic irregularities. The mean values regarding seed yield were 16.39 g per plant for the control treatment and 7.46 g per plant under high temperature. IAC Imperador, FT Nobre, Pérola, BRS Estilo, and IAC Diplomata stood out for higher bean seed yield under increased temperature.
Presence of the ALMT1 (aluminum-activated malate transporter) gene confers resistance to aluminum toxicity in Triticum aestivum (common wheat). No resistant cultivars of Triticum turgidum ssp. Durum Desf. (durum wheat) have been registered in Brazil. The aim of this study was to map the ALMT1 through application of the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) technique in five wheat genotypes, common and durum, from the Active Germplasm Bank (AGB) of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC): BH 1146, P19, P33, Anahuac, and IAC 1003. FISH-ALMT1 signals were registered in Anahuac (sensitive) chromosomes and in BH 1146, P19, and P33 (resistant) chromosomes. In the three resistant genotypes, a characteristic double FISH signal was found, located in different chromosomes of the complements: in BH 1146 in chromosome 5D, in P19 in 3B, and in P33 in 6B. This FISH-ALMT1 mapping allows for introgression of aluminum resistance in sensitive cultivars through breeding programs using introgression lines containing these carrier chromosomes.
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