The initial inflammatory phase of bone fracture healing represents a critical step for the outcome of the healing process. However, both the mechanisms initiating this inflammatory phase and the function of immune cells present at the fracture site are poorly understood. In order to study the early events within a fracture hematoma, we established an in vitro fracture hematoma model: we cultured hematomas forming during an osteotomy (artificial bone fracture) of the femur during total hip arthroplasty (THA) in vitro under bioenergetically controlled conditions. This model allowed us to monitor immune cell populations, cell survival and cytokine expression during the early phase following a fracture. Moreover, this model enabled us to change the bioenergetical conditions in order to mimic the in vivo situation, which is assumed to be characterized by hypoxia and restricted amounts of nutrients. Using this model, we found that immune cells adapt to hypoxia via the expression of angiogenic factors, chemoattractants and pro-inflammatory molecules. In addition, combined restriction of oxygen and nutrient supply enhanced the selective survival of lymphocytes in comparison with that of myeloid derived cells (i.e., neutrophils). Of note, non-restricted bioenergetical conditions did not show any similar effects regarding cytokine expression and/or different survival rates of immune cell subsets. In conclusion, we found that the bioenergetical conditions are among the crucial factors inducing the initial inflammatory phase of fracture healing and are thus a critical step for influencing survival and function of immune cells in the early fracture hematoma.
Abstract:Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients.
The role of bacterial infections in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has gained increasing interest. Patients with RA often exhibit periodontal disease, which is associated with pathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis. The present study examines the direct effects of P. gingivalis on apoptosis of human chondrocytes (a feature of inflammatory joint diseases) as one can assume an interrelation of pathogenesis of RA and P. gingivalis infections. Primary chondrocytes were infected with P. gingivalis. Early apoptotic and dead cell analysis was performed using Annexin-V, 7AAD, and propidium iodide and examined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Caspase activation and DNA fragmentation were determined by western blot analysis and TUNEL reaction. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated an increase of Annexin-V-positive early apoptotic chondrocytes after infection. Western blot showed upregulation of activated caspase-3 expression, and TUNEL reaction revealed considerable DNA fragmentation following infection. The data show that P. gingivalis promotes early and later stages of apoptosis of primary human chondrocytes, which might contribute to the joint damage seen in the pathogenesis of RA.
The role of human chondrocytes in the pathogenesis of cartilage degradation in rheumatic joint diseases has presently gained increasing interest. An active chondrocyte participation in local inflammation may play a role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory joint diseases and in a disruption of cartilage repair mechanisms resulting in cartilage degradation. In the present study, we hypothesized that inflammatory synovial fluid triggers human chondrocytes to actively take part in inflammatory processes in rheumatic joint diseases. Primary human chondrocytes were incubated in synovial fluids gained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis arthritis and reactive arthritis. The detection of vital cell numbers was determined by using Casy Cell Counter System. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin-V and 7AAD staining. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was determined by a multiplex suspension array. Detection of vital cells showed a highly significant decrease in chondrocyte numbers. Flow cytometry demonstrated a significant increase in apoptotic chondrocytes after the incubation. An active secretion of cytokines such as MCP-1 and MIF by chondrocytes was observed. The inflammatory synovial fluid microenvironment mediates apoptosis and cell death of chondrocytes. Moreover, in terms of cytokine secretion, it also induces an active participation of chondrocytes in ongoing inflammation.
In septic joint surgery, the most frequently used antiseptics are polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide and taurolidine. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of these antiseptics on viability of human chondrocytes. Our hypothesis was that antiseptics and supplemental irrigation with sodium chloride lavage are less toxic on human chondrocytes than treatment with antiseptics only. Primary human chondrocytes were isolated and cultured from six donated human knee joints. Polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide or taurolidine were added to the cultures. Toxicity analysis was performed by visualisation of cell structure using light microscopy and LDH activity. The determination of vital cells and total cell numbers of chondrocytes treated with antiseptics partly followed by irrigation with sodium chloride solution was performed by using Casy Cell-Counter. Light microscopic data revealed a defect in cell structure after addition of antiseptics. We showed a significant increase of LDH enzyme activity after the treatment with polyhexanide or taurolidine. After treatment with antiseptics followed by sodium chloride solution a significant increase of vital and total cell numbers resulted in comparison with the chondrocytes that were only treated with antiseptics. The data show that treatment with polyhexanid, hydrogen peroxide or taurolidine induces cell death of human chondroctes in vitro. The application of sodium chloride solution after the treatment with polyhexanide and hydrogen peroxide possibly has a protective effect on chondrocyte viability.
The use of KT has a positive effect on proprioception in patients with an anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Therefore, the application may improve gait pattern as well as the subjective function of the affected knee joint.
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