The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a major virulence factor required for the early phases of lung colonization. It can invade eukaryotic cells where, upon activation by endogenous calmodulin, it catalyzes the formation of unregulated cAMP levels. CyaA intoxication leads to evident toxic effects on macrophages and neutrophils. Here, we demonstrate that CyaA uses the αMβ2 integrin (CD11b/CD18) as a cell receptor. Indeed, the saturable binding of CyaA to the surface of various hematopoietic cell lines correlated with the presence of the αMβ2 integrin on these cells. Moreover, binding of CyaA to various murine cell lines and human neutrophils was specifically blocked by anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies. The increase of intracellular cAMP level and cell death triggered by CyaA intoxication was also specifically blocked by anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies. In addition, CyaA bound efficiently and triggered intracellular cAMP increase and cell death in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with αMβ2 (CD11b/CD18) but not in cells transfected with the vector alone or with the αXβ2 (CD11c/CD18) integrin. Thus, the cellular distribution of CD11b, mostly on neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic and natural killer cells, supports a role for CyaA in disrupting the early, innate antibacterial immune response.
Immune cell infiltration of expanding adipose tissue during obesity and its role in insulin resistance has been described and involves chemokines. However, studies so far have focused on a single chemokine or its receptor (especially CCL2 and CCL5) whereas redundant functions of chemokines have been described. The objective of this work was to explore the expression of chemokines in inflamed adipose tissue in obesity. Human and mouse adipocytes were analyzed for expression of chemokines in response to inflammatory signal (TNF-α) using microarrays and gene set enrichment analysis. Gene expression was verified by qRT-PCR. Chemokine protein was determined in culture medium with ELISA. Chemokine expression was investigated in human subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and mechanism of chemokine expression was investigated using chemical inhibitors and cellular and animal transgenic models. Chemokine encoding genes were the most responsive genes in TNF-α treated human and mouse adipocytes. mRNA and protein of 34 chemokine genes were induced in a dose-dependent manner in the culture system. Furthermore, expression of those chemokines was elevated in human obese adipose tissue. Finally, chemokine expression was reduced by NF-κB inactivation and elevated by NF-κB activation. Our data indicate that besides CCL2 and CCL5, numerous other chemokines such as CCL19 are expressed by adipocytes under obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Their expression is regulated predominantly by NF-κB. Those chemokines could be involved in the initiation of infiltration of leukocytes into obese adipose tissue.
We previously demonstrated that the TNF-α-induced inside-out signaling leading to β2 integrin activation is redox regulated. To identify kinases involved in this pathway, the effects of kinase inhibitors on the expression of β2 integrin activation neoepitope (clone 24) were investigated. We show that both p38 MAPK (inhibited by SB203580) and Src kinases (inhibited by PP2) are involved in β2 integrin activation by TNF and oxidants in human neutrophils. Src kinases appeared constitutively active in resting neutrophils and not further activated by TNF or oxidants in nonadherent conditions. However, PP2 blocked both TNF-induced expression of the 24 epitope and cell adhesion promoted by the integrin activating anti-CD18 KIM185 mAb, showing that both the inside-out and the outside-in signaling involve Src kinases. p38 MAPK was activated by TNF and oxidants in nonadherent conditions i.e., with 10 mM EDTA. This activation in EDTA resulted in CD11b, CD35 and CD66 up-regulation and in an oxidative response, all blocked by SB203580 and PP2. p38 MAPK was not activated upon direct integrin activation by KIM185 mAb. Thus, p38 activation allows the study to distinguish the initial transduction pathway leading to β2 integrin activation from the signaling resulting from integrin engagement. Finally, p38 MAPK activation by TNF was blocked by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of flavoprotein oxidoreductase, and by the free radical scavenger N-acetylcystein. Taken together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that constitutively activated Src tyrosine kinases and a redox-regulated activation of p38 MAPK are involved in TNF inside-out signaling leading to β2 integrin activation.
Although the central role of beta2-integrin CD11b / CD18 in neutrophil functions is well recognized, signaling pathway that regulate integrin activation remain to be elucidated. We analyzed the contribution of oxido-reduction mechanisms in this signaling. Exogenously added H(2)O(2) induced CD11b/CD18-dependent neutrophil adhesion and expression of an integrin activation neoepitope recognized by monoclonal antibody (mAb) clone 24. H(2)O(2)-triggered beta2-integrin activation was inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and by complexing sulfhydryl groups with phenylarsine oxide (PAO). CD11b/CD18-dependent adhesion and mAb 24 antigen expression triggered by physiological agonists such as TNF-alpha were inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of flavoprotein oxidoreductase), by free radical scavengers, by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and by PAO. No inhibition was observed when adhesion was induced by the integrin-activating KIM 185 mAb. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of an oxidative S-thiolation step(s) in the tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling pathway leading to beta2-integrin activation. H(2)O(2) would directly mediate this oxidative reaction and bypass the initial agonist/receptor pathway to promote integrin-dependent adhesion. The putative oxidase(s) involved in this process is not NADPH oxidase, since adhesion of neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease was normal and inhibited by scavengers and DPI. These data shed a new light on the regulation of integrin activation required for cell migration into inflamed organs.
To evaluate the expression of innate immunity markers at the site of nodules caused by hidradenitis suppurativa (HS).Design: Prospective analysis of 12 patients with HS.
Skin is constantly exposed to environmental factors such as pollutants, chemicals and ultra violet radiation (UV), which can induce premature skin aging and increase the risk of skin cancer. One strategy to reduce the effect of oxidative stress produced by environmental exposure is the application of antioxidant molecules. Among the endogenous antioxidants, selenoproteins play a key role in antioxidant defense and in maintaining a reduced cellular environment. Selenium, essential for the activity of selenoproteins, is a trace element that is not synthesized by organisms and must be supplied by diet or supplementation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Selenium supplementation on skin aging, especially on keratinocytes, the main cells of the epidermis. Our results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, the major role of Selenium on the replicative life span of keratinocytes and on aging skin. Selenium protects keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) against senescence via preservation of their stemness phenotype through adhesion to the basement membrane. Additionally, Selenium supplementation maintains the homeostasis of skin during chronological aging in our senescent skin equivalent model. Controlled supplementation with Selenium could be a new strategy to protect skin against aging.
Zinc is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in many metabolisms. Zinc deficiency induces various disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, either inherited or acquired. We report three cases of premature infants (24-31 wks gestational age) with low birthweight (650 to 940 g) and enteropathy, two of whom presented with necrotizing enterocolitis. All infants were fed by total parenteral nutrition. At a chronological age ranging from 73 to 80 days, all infants developed a periorificial dermatitis. Before the onset of the first signs, they had received zinc supplementation ranging from 146% to 195% of the recommended dose (400 microg/kg/day). Increased zinc supplementation over a course of 6-18 days induced a complete resolution of symptoms in all cases. No abnormality in the neurologic examination and no recurrence were observed at the end of the zinc treatment. Low birthweight premature infants with enteropathy on total parenteral nutrition are at risk of developing zinc deficiency. The usual recommended zinc supplementation is probably insufficient for those infants. A delay in the diagnosis of zinc deficiency may lead to severe complications.
Acne is thought of mainly as a skin disorder of teenagers. However, the prevalence of adult acne in some studies is 20^0% (1, 2). Thus, acne also affects pregnant women. However, unlike other dermatoses, there are very few data available on acne in pregnancy, its spontaneous course and its therapeutic management by dermatologists in daily practice. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey to answer these questions. MATERIALS AND METHODSThis French survey was hased on a questionnaire and was carried out over a period of 18 months. The questionnaire was composed of questions ahout the history of acne, evaluation of severity of acne on hoth face and hack using ECLA grading (3), prescription at the end of the consultation. Dermatologist national representativeness was ensured hy a random draw with geographical stratification. Prospectively, each dermatologist had to include the first 5 pregnant patients with acne who consulted them, whatever the reason for the consultation. The inclusion criteria were: age >18 years, heing pregnant, having acne, and agreeing to participate in the survey. The survey was conducted in accordance with the Public Health Code and Recommendations and Good Practices in Epidemiology. Acne severity and clinical type were determined using the Acne Lesion Clinical Assessment Scale (ECLA grid) (3). Seventy-nine dermatologists participated in the study. RESULTSA total of 378 pregnant women with acne were included. The median number of pregnant women seen per year and dermatologist in consultation was 19 and the median proportion of these women having acne was 42.3% (range 10-100%). The mean age of the population at the time of consultation was 29.8 ±4.8 years.10.9% of them were between 18 and 25 years, and 89.1% were older. The mean±SD age of acne onset was 15.8 ±4.4 years. Among these patients, 86.6% had had acne previously; relapse of cured acne in 35.1% of cases and continuous acne since adolescence in 51.5% of cases. Among the latter women, 59.7% reported acne worsening during their pregnancy, 9.1% an improvement and 31.2% no change. Among the 137 multiparous patients, 65.9% reported acne flares during previous pregnancies. For the last 3 years before pregnancy, contraception was used in 75.1% of cases.Concerning the characteristics of acne, 35.2% of women had only facial lesions, more frequently on the mandibular regions (69.1%), then on the cheeks (15.7%) and forehead (14.4%). The proportion of women with lesions on the trunk was 87.2%. Patients with previous acne had significantly more lesions on the neck and trunk (/?< 0.001 andjO = 0.004, respectively). Inflammatory lesions predominated, with 37% of patients having 1-5 facial nodules. Women over 25 years of age had fewer retentional and superficial inflammatory lesions on the neck and trunk than women under 25 years of age (/7 = 0.030). Retentional lesions were more common in patients with previous acne (p = 0.004), in particular in relapsing acne (p = 0.008). Inflammatory nodules and cysts were more numerous in patients with conti...
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