A study using live rabbits, with subsequent analysis of excised corneas stained with trypan blue/alizarin red, showed that torsional ultrasound led to less corneal endothelial cell damage than classical longitudinal ultrasound.
A study using live rabbits, with subsequent analysis of excised corneas stained with trypan blue/alizarin red, showing simulated swirling lenticular debris may contribute significantly to corneal endothelium damage during phacoemulsification.
Thygeson superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK) is clinically characterized by exacerbations and remissions of gray-white opacities within the corneal epithelium, most often bilateral but may be asymmetric. Symptoms typically include photophobia, tearing, blurring, and eye irritation. Although disease progression and prognosis are well described, the exact cause is unknown. Hypotheses exist implicating virus-mediated immunity as the cause of TSPK following cases of viral keratitis; however, several polymerase chain reaction studies refute the infectious process concurrently with symptomatic TSPK. This is further supported by the consistent lack of response to antiviral and antibacterial treatment. A subset of dendritic cells known as Langerhans cells (LC) found within the corneal epithelium has been positively correlated with exacerbations of TSPK. Langerhans cells proliferate to protect and mitigate the cornea's inflammatory response, but the inflammatory triggers and relapses associated with TSPK are not well understood. Several topical drugs exist to treat inflammation related to TSPK; however, drug delivery is a major barrier to treatment because of the tear film and epithelial barrier. Drug-eluting contact lenses that target intermediates of inflammation could serve as a more effective treatment modality because of the increased bioavailability of the drugs. This review is an in-depth survey of the literature regarding the relationship between the origin and pathophysiology of LC and TSPK at the immunologic level. We also discuss potential pharmacotherapeutic interventions for TSPK prevention and treatment.
Background: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and predictability of laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) enhancement after primary LASIK and compare to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria. Methods: Patients who underwent LASIK enhancement after primary LASIK between 2002 and 2019 were compared to those who underwent LASIK without retreatment. Patient demographics, preoperative characteristics, visual outcomes, and postoperative complications were compared between groups. Epithelial ingrowth (EI) development was stratified based on duration between primary and secondary procedures. Results: We compared 901 eyes with LASIK enhancement to 1127 eyes without retreatment. Age, sex, surgical eye, sphere, cylinder, and spherical equivalent (SE) were significantly different between groups (p < 0.05). At 12 months post-enhancement, 86% of the eyes had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better and 93% of eyes were within ±0.50 D of the target. Development of EI (6.1%) demonstrated an odds ratio of 16.3 in the long-term compared to the short-term (95% CI: 5.9 to 45.18; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Older age at primary LASIK, female sex, right eye, and larger sphere, cylinder and SE were risk factors for enhancement. Risk of EI significantly increased when duration between primary and enhancement procedures exceeded five years. LASIK enhancements produce favorable outcomes and meet FDA benchmarks for safety, efficacy, and predictability.
To compare the protection of the corneal endothelium provided by a cohesive and a dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) against damage from torsional ultrasound and simulated lenticular debris during phacoemulsification.
To determine the difference, if any, in grooving efficiency at various settings on the Whitestar Signature Pro phacoemulsification (phaco) system.
Cataractous lenses were simulated by exposing porcine lenses to formalin for 2 hours. A total of 120 lenses were analyzed at various power settings on both longitudinal and transversal handpieces. Twenty trials each were performed with power set to 25%, 50%, and 75% on both handpieces. A Whitestar Phaco Handpiece System was used to provide longitudinal power, and a Whitestar Signature Ellipsis Handpiece provided transversal power. Lenses were placed within a plastic chamber and grooved by an investigator blinded to settings. A second investigator recorded times and adjusted settings. The Whitestar Signature Pro phaco system was used for grooving.
There was no significant difference in grooving times between the longitudinal and transverse handpieces at any power setting (P > 0.05). There was a significant decrease in grooving times when comparing the 25% power setting with the 75% power setting for the transversal handpiece (
Both longitudinal and transversal handpieces on the Whitestar Signature Pro phaco system produce similar results to one another at each power setting. There is a general trend toward shorter grooving times, reflecting greater efficiency, at higher power settings. Grooving efficiency on the transversal handpiece may be more affected by changes in the power settings as compared with the longitudinal settings.
To determine whether there is a difference in efficiency during phacoemulsification when using the hybrid polymer tip compared with the metal balanced tip, as measured by cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) and total procedure time.
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