ଝଝ This text is protected by copyright owned by SPILF. Reproduction and distribution rights are granted by SPILF on request, provided the text is reproduced in full, with no addition or deletion, and provided SPILF and the references of the original article published in Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses are indicated. Chikungunya (CHIK) is both an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and an arthrogenic alphavirus, the clinical consequences of which were revealed in France by the southwest Indian Ocean outbreak (Mayotte, Reunion) in 2005-2006. The recent epidemic spread of CHIK in the French South American and Pacific territories (departments) and communities led to a steady increase of infected individuals, confronting local and metropolitan healthcare professionals with the difficulties http://dx.
BackgroundSince 2003, the tropical arthritogenic chikungunya (CHIK) virus has become an increasingly medical and economic burden in affected areas as it can often result in long-term disabilities. The clinical spectrum of post-CHIK (pCHIK) rheumatic disorders is wide. Evidence-based recommendations are needed to help physicians manage the treatment of afflicted patients.Patients and methodsWe conducted a 6-year case series retrospective study in Reunion Island of patients referred to a rheumatologist due to continuous rheumatic or musculoskeletal pains that persisted following CHIK infection. These various disorders were documented in terms of their clinical and therapeutic courses. Post-CHIK de novo chronic inflammatory rheumatisms (CIRs) were identified according to validated criteria.ResultsWe reviewed 159 patient medical files. Ninety-four patients (59%) who were free of any articular disorder prior to CHIK met the CIR criteria: rheumatoid arthritis (n=40), spondyloarthritis (n=33), undifferentiated polyarthritis (n=21). Bone lesions detectable by radiography occurred in half of the patients (median time: 3.5 years pCHIK). A positive therapeutic response was achieved in 54 out of the 72 patients (75%) who were treated with methotrexate (MTX). Twelve out of the 92 patients (13%) received immunomodulatory biologic agents due to failure of contra-indication of MTX treatment. Other patients mainly presented with mechanical shoulder or knee disorders, bilateral distal polyarthralgia that was frequently associated with oedema at the extremities and tunnel syndromes. These pCHIK musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were managed with pain-killers, local and/or general anti-inflammatory drugs, and physiotherapy.ConclusionRheumatologists in Reunion Island managed CHIK rheumatic disorders in a pragmatic manner following the outbreak in 2006. This retrospective study describes the common mechanical and inflammatory pCHIK disorders. We provide a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm to help physicians deal with chronic patients, and to limit both functional and economic impacts. The therapeutic indication of MTX in pCHIK CIR could be approved in future efficacy trials.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. After half a century of focal outbreaks of acute febrile polyarthralgia in Africa and Asia, the disease unexpectedly spread in the past decade with large outbreaks in Africa and around the Indian Ocean and rare autochthonous transmission in temperate areas. This emergence brought new insights on its pathogenesis, notably the role of the A226V mutation that improved CHIKV fitness in Ae. albopictus and the possible CHIKV persistence in deep tissue sanctuaries for months after infection. Massive outbreaks also revealed new aspects of the acute stage: the high number of symptomatic cases, unexpected complications, mother-to-child transmission, and low lethality in debilitated patients. The follow-up of patients in epidemic areas has identified frequent, long-lasting, rheumatic disorders, including rare inflammatory joint destruction, and common chronic mood changes associated with quality-of-life impairment. Thus, the globalization of CHIKV exposes countries with Aedes mosquitoes both to brutal outbreaks of acute incapacitating episodes and endemic long-lasting disorders.
This study presents the 6-year follow-up of French gendarmes exposed to the chikungunya (CHIK) infection in 2006 on Reunion Island. The aim was to see to what extent the subjective health differences observed in 2008 (30 months after infection) between CHIK infected (CHIK+) and noninfected (CHIK-) gendarmes still persisted in 2012, and to investigate a possible return to a pre-CHIK health status for CHIK+ subjects. Gendarmes were contacted by mail in 2012 and asked to complete a self-questionnaire asking for morbidity, health care and medicines consumption since the last follow-up in 2008. Quality of life (QoL) after 6 years was evaluated using the SF-36 scale. In comparison with CHIK- subjects (n = 171), CHIK+ (n = 81) presented with higher rheumatic but also nonspecific morbidity such as headaches and fatigue associated with a large psychological impact, frequent depressive moods and social disabilities, leading to a significant impairment of the QoL and higher health care consumption. When restricted to CHIK+ subjects, comparing the data with that of 2008 showed persistent but decreasing self-reported rheumatic morbidity, and an increase over time of chronic discomfort (headache, fatigue) and depressive moods, resulting in no overall improvement in QoL. Despite possible cohort attrition bias, the comparability of CHIK+/CHIK- subjects allows the assumption of a long-term impact of CHIK infection with less chance of returning to a previous health status. Although these results may be specific to the 2006 virus strain, we recommend that public health strategies in the epidemic-prone countries include a response to the consequences of chronic post-CHIK disorders.
BackgroundChikungunya virus infection (CHIKV) is caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus. CHIKV causes high fever and painful rheumatic disorders that may persist for years. Because little is known about interventions for treating CHIKV-related illness, we conducted a systematic review.MethodsWe used Cochrane methods. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS and other sources from the earliest records to March 2016. We had no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials assessing any intervention for treating acute or chronic CHIKV-related illness. Our primary outcomes were pain relief, global health status (GHS) or health related quality of life (HRQL), and serious adverse events (SAEs). We assessed bias risk with the Cochrane tool and used GRADE to assess evidence quality.ResultsWe screened 2,229 records and found five small trials with a total of 402 participants. Patients receiving chloroquine (CHQ) had better chronic pain relief than those receiving placebo (relative risk [RR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23 to 5.77, N = 54), but acute pain relief was marginally not different between groups (mean difference [MD] 1.46, 95% CI 0.00 to 2.92, N = 54). SAEs were similar (RR = 15.00, 95% CI 0.90 to 250.24, N = 54). Comparing CHQ with paracetamol (PCM), CHQ patients had better pain relief (RR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.93, N = 86). Compared with hydroxychloroquine (HCHQ), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) reduced pain (MD = -14.80, 95% CI -19.12 to -10.48, N = 72). DMARDs patients had less disability (MD = -0.74, 95% CI -0.92 to -0.56, N = 72) and less disease activity (MD = -1.35; 95% CI -1.70 to -1.00; N = 72). SAEs were similar between DMARDs and HCHQ groups (RR = 2.84, 95% CI 0.12 to 67.53, N = 72). Comparing meloxicam (MXM) with CHQ, there was no difference in pain relief (MD = 0.24, 95% CI = -0.81 to 1.29; p = 0.65, N = 70), GHS or HRQL (MD = -0.31, 95% CI -2.06 to 1.44, N = 70) or SAEs (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.42, N = 70). Finally, a four-arm trial (N = 120) compared aceclofenac (ACF) monotherapy to ACF+HCHQ, ACF+ prednisolone (PRD), or ACF+HCHQ+PRD. Investigators found reduced pain (p<0.001) and better HRQL (p<0.001) in the two patient groups receiving PRD, compared to those receiving ACF monotherapy or ACF+HCHQ. Trials were at high risk of bias. GRADE evidence quality for all outcomes was very low.ConclusionResults from these small trials provide insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the efficacy or safety of CHIKV interventions. Physicians should be cautious in prescribing and policy-makers should be cautious in recommending any intervention reviewed here. Rigorous trials with sufficient statistical power are urgently needed, with results stratified by disease stage and symptomology.
On 16 September 2016, the World Health Organization confirmed a Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in Niger. Epidemiological surveillance was reinforced among the French Armed Forces deployed in Niger and bordering countries: Chad, Mali and Burkina Faso. On 26 October, a probable case of RVF was reported in a service member sampled in Mali 3 weeks earlier. At the time the result was reported, the patient was on vacation on Martinique. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to confirm this case and identify other cases. Finally, the case was not confirmed, but three suspected cases of RVF were confirmed using serological and molecular testing. RVF viral RNA was detectable in whole blood for 57 and 67 days after onset of symptoms for two cases, although it was absent from plasma and serum. At the time of diagnosis, these cases had already returned from Mali to Europe. The infectivity of other arboviruses in whole blood has already been highlighted. That RVF virus has been detected in whole blood that long after the onset of symptoms (67 days) raises the question of its potential prolonged infectivity. Because of exposure to tropical infectious diseases during deployment, military populations could import emerging pathogens to Europe.
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