The first section of this article introduces the problem of usage norms that are detrimental to Catalan in interpersonal relations between Castilian and Catalan speakers. It goes on to describe the main campaigns promoting the use of Catalan in these intergroup relations, from El català és cosa de tots (Catalonia, 1981) to Integra'm, Integra'l (Minorca, 2005(Minorca, -2006, including on the way other Catalan, Balearic and Valencian campaigns. To conclude, it points to, on the one hand, the limits of these campaigns within a liberal democratic framework and, on the other, the difficulties in assessing their effects on everyday competences, usages and attitudes.
Medium-sized language communities face competition between local and global languages such as Spanish, Russian, French and, above all, English. The various regions of Spain where Catalan is spoken, Denmark, the Czech Republic, and Lithuania show how their medium-sized languages (a term used to distinguish them as much from minority codes as from more widely-spoken codes) coexist alongside or struggle with their big brothers in multilingual families. This comparative analysis offers unique insight into language contact in present-day Europe.
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