Advanced machine learning methods might help to identify dementia risk from neuroimaging, but their accuracy to date is unclear.
We systematically reviewed the literature, 2006 to late 2016, for machine learning studies differentiating healthy aging from dementia of various types, assessing study quality, and comparing accuracy at different disease boundaries.
Of 111 relevant studies, most assessed Alzheimer's disease versus healthy controls, using AD Neuroimaging Initiative data, support vector machines, and only T1-weighted sequences. Accuracy was highest for differentiating Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls and poor for differentiating healthy controls versus mild cognitive impairment versus Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment converters versus nonconverters. Accuracy increased using combined data types, but not by data source, sample size, or machine learning method.
Machine learning does not differentiate clinically relevant disease categories yet. More diverse data sets, combinations of different types of data, and close clinical integration of machine learning would help to advance the field.
This paper concerns the validation of automatic retinal image analysis (ARIA) algorithms. For reasons of space and consistency, we concentrate on the validation of algorithms processing color fundus camera images, currently the largest section of the ARIA literature. We sketch the context (imaging instruments and target tasks) of ARIA validation, summarizing the main image analysis and validation techniques. We then present a list of recommendations focusing on the creation of large repositories of test data created by international consortia, easily accessible via moderated Web sites, including multicenter annotations by multiple experts, specific to clinical tasks, and capable of running submitted software automatically on the data stored, with clear and widely agreed-on performance criteria, to provide a fair comparison.
We present VAMPIRE, a software application for efficient, semi-automatic quantification of retinal vessel properties with large collections of fundus camera images. VAMPIRE is also an international collaborative project of four image processing groups and five clinical centres. The system provides automatic detection of retinal landmarks (optic disc, vasculature), and quantifies key parameters used frequently in investigative studies: vessel width, vessel branching coefficients, and tortuosity. The ultimate vision is to make VAMPIRE available as a public tool, to support quantification and analysis of large collections of fundus camera images.
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