Recently, some works
claim that hydrophobic deep eutectic solvents
could be prepared based on menthol and monocarboxylic acids. Despite
of some promising potential applications, these systems were poorly
understood, and this work addresses this issue. Here, the characterization
of eutectic solvents composed of the terpenes thymol or l(−)-menthol and monocarboxylic acids is studied aiming the
design of these solvents. Their solid–liquid phase diagrams
were measured by differential scanning calorimetry in the whole composition
range, showing that a broader composition range, and not only fixed
stoichiometric proportions, can be used as solvents at low temperatures.
Additionally, solvent densities and viscosities close to the eutectic
compositions were measured, showing low viscosity and lower density
than water. The solvatochromic parameters at the eutectic composition
were also investigated aiming at better understanding their polarity.
The high acidity is mainly provided by the presence of thymol in the
mixture, while l(−)-menthol plays the major role on
the hydrogen-bond basicity. The measured mutual solubilities with
water attest to the hydrophobic character of the mixtures investigated.
The experimental solid–liquid phase diagrams were described
using the PC-SAFT equation of state that is shown to accurately describe
the experimental data and quantify the small deviations from ideality.
a b s t r a c tIn this study the solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) of 15 binary mixtures composed of one of three different symmetrical quaternary ammonium chlorides and one of five different fatty acids were measured. The experimental data obtained showed extreme negative deviations to ideality causing large meltingtemperature depressions (up to 300 K) that are characteristic for deep eutectic systems. The experimental data revealed that cross-interactions between quaternary ammonium salt and fatty acid increase with increasing alkyl chain length of the quaternary ammonium chloride and with increasing chain length of the carboxylic acid. The pronounced decrease of melting temperatures in these deep eutectic systems is mainly caused by strong hydrogen-bonding interactions, and thermodynamic modeling required an approach that takes hydrogen bonding into account. Thus, the measured phase diagrams were modeled with perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory based on the classical molecular homonuclear approach. The model showed very good agreement with the experimental data using a semi-predictive modeling approach, in which binary interaction parameters between quaternary ammonium chloride and carboxylic acid correlated with chain length of the components. This supports the experimental findings on the phase behavior and interactions present in these systems and it allows estimating eutectic points of such highly non-ideal mixtures.
The solid−liquid equilibria phase diagrams of eight eutectic systems formed by choline chloride and fatty acids, or fatty alcohols, were measured to characterize the nonideality of the liquid phase of these systems, commonly reported in the literature as examples of type III deep eutectic solvents (DESs), and to evaluate the best modeling approaches to their description. Most of these systems are shown to present only slight deviations from ideal behavior, resulting from a fine balance of the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl/carboxylic groups with the chloride anion and the interactions present in the pure compounds. The phase diagrams measured were modeled with an associative equation of state (EoS) and a g E model. As an EoS, the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was used, and this model was able to accurately describe the experimental data and to provide reliable estimates of the eutectic points using just a single binary temperature-dependent interaction parameter that often correlates with the acid/alcohol chain length. The performance of PC-SAFT was further compared with the g E model, a non-random two-liquid model (NRTL), and was found to provide a better description of the experimental data, especially for the more nonideal systems. Ultimately, the data gathered, and the molecular modeling, allowed the discussion of the behavior of fatty acids or fatty alcohols as hydrogen bond donors in choline chloride-based DESs.
Isobaric vapor liquid equilibria (VLE) of binary mixtures of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (CmimTfO) with either water or short chained n-alkyl alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, and butan-1-ol) are described in this study. Two different microebulliometers and a classical VLE apparatus were compared and the VLEs were determined in the composition range 0.4 ≤ x(solvent) ≤ 1 at three different pressure levels ( p = 500 mbar, 700 mbar, and 1000 mbar). The experimental data were modeled using the soft-SAFT equation of state, which was able to accurately describe the nonideal behavior of these mixtures. The combined experimental-modeling results obtained contribute to establish the structure-property relationship between the CmimTfO and n-alkyl alcohol molecules and to infer about its influence on the phase behavior of these solvents.
Aiming at providing an extensive characterization of the solid−liquid equilibria (SLE) of deep eutectic solvents (DESs), the phase diagrams of nine eutectic mixtures composed of choline chloride ([Ch]Cl) and (poly)carboxylic acids, commonly reported in the literature as DESs, were measured experimentally. Contrarily to the behavior reported for eutectic mixtures composed of [Ch]Cl (hydrogen-bond acceptor, HBA) and monofunctional hydrogen-bond donors (HBD) such as fatty acids and fatty alcohols, which have recently been shown to be almost ideal mixtures, a significant decrease of the melting temperature, at the eutectic point, was observed for most of the systems studied. This melting temperature depression was attributed to a pronounced nonideality of the liquid phase induced by the strong hydrogen-bond interactions between the two mixture components. Perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was used to describe these interactions physically. PC-SAFT allowed accurately modeling the experimental phase diagrams over the entire concentration and temperature ranges. Depending on the kind of mixture, up to two temperature-independent binary interaction parameters between HBA and HBD were applied. The PC-SAFT approach was used to provide trustworthy information on the nonideality of the liquid phase (expressed as the activity coefficients of HBA and HBD) as well as to estimate the eutectic points coordinates. The experimental data along with the modeling results allowed us to infer about the importance of the HBD's chemical structure on the formation of [Ch]Cl-based DESs.
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