Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life of cats having undergone perineal urethrostomy (PU) or prepubic urethrostomy (PPU). Methods This clinical study followed 28 cats (PU, n = 22; PPU, n = 6) that underwent a urethrostomy, with a minimum of 1 year postoperative follow-up. Medical records, pet owner surveys and urologic laboratory tests were used for assessment. Urologic laboratory tests included serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), serum creatinine, urinalysis, urine specific gravity (USG), urine protein:creatinine (UPC) ratio and urine culture. Results The main indications for urethrostomy were multiple catheterizations and PU stricture. The overall complication rates of PU and PPU were 31.8% and 83.3%, respectively. Recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and urine scald dermatitis was less frequent in PU than in PPU cats (UTI 22.7% vs 66.6%; dermatitis 4.5% vs 83.3%). Bacteriuria was present in 77.2% and 100% of PU and PPU cats, respectively. Owner satisfaction rates were excellent in 81.8% of PU and 33.3% of PPU cases. Conclusions and relevance A proportion of cats that underwent urethrostomy showed bacteriuria, recurrent UTIs and increased levels of SDMA. PPU is important as a salvage procedure; however, it should be limited to cases in which standard techniques for PU cannot be performed, owing to the potential for recurrent complications and lower owner satisfaction.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of trans-resveratrol or quercetin on the ability of goat sperm to withstand being frozen. Six pools of semen obtained from six male goats were processed with different concentrations of resveratrol or quercetin (Experiment 1: 0, 15, 25, 50, 75 or 100µM resveratrol; Experiment 2: 0, 15, 25, 50, 75 or 100µM quercetin) and frozen. After thawing, the semen was evaluated for sperm kinematics, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, morphology and oxidative stress following 0 and 1h of incubation. Immediately after thawing (0h), wobble (oscillation index) in the groups treated with 100µM of quercetin or resveratrol was lower (P<0.05) than in those treated with 0 and 25µM resveratrol and 0µM quercetin, respectively. After 1h of incubation, the total motility in treatments with 15, 50 and 75µM quercetin, as well as the plasma membrane integrity in all quercetin concentrations were lower (P<0.05) than at 0h. In opposition, the linearity of semen samples treated with 100µM quercetin and the straightness of those treated with 75 and 100µM quercetin were lower (P<0.05) at 0h than at 1h after thawing. Thus, it can be concluded that resveratrol and quercetin at high concentrations (100µM) transiently reduce the wobble of goat sperm submitted to frozen storage, and that quercetin (75 and 100µM) increases the linearity and straightness over time, which can be favorable for fertility.
ABSTRACT. Successful DNA extraction is indispensable for molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR); however, goat sperm DNA extraction is limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate three methods to extract DNA from goat sperm for use in PCR. Eight goat semen pools were used for DNA extraction by using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit, phenol-chloroform, and Chelex-100 methods. DNA samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically to determine the DNA concentration and purity, visualized on 0.8% agarose gel, and used at different amounts (150, 100, 50, 10, and 1 ng) for PCR with electrophoresis, followed by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The quantity of DNA extracted with Chelex-100 was DNA extraction from goat sperm for PCR analysis higher (P < 0.05) than that obtained with either the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit or the phenol-chloroform method, with the phenolchloroform method yielding a greater quantity (P < 0.05) than the kit. The DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit produced a higher (P < 0.05) purity product than the Chelex-100 method, and all samples obtained by the three protocols were positive for DNA, as assessed by electrophoresis. All of the different concentrations of DNA produced by these methods were amplified by PCR, although for DNA produced by the phenolchloroform method, PCR was only possible after complementary purification. In conclusion, the Chelex-100 method is cheap, secure, simple, fast, and effective, and is a potential tool for extracting goat sperm DNA without limitations in PCR.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of (+)-catechin or (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on goat semen freezability. Poolsof semen were processed (Experiment 1: 0, 15, 25, 50, 75, or 100µM (+)-catechin; Experiment 2: 0, 15, 25, 50, 75, or 100µM EGCG) and frozen. After thawing, the samples were evaluated for kinematics, plasma membrane (PMi) and acrosome integrity, morphology, and oxidative stress, at 0 and 1h. In Experiment 1, at 0h, VSL and VAP were greater (P<0.05) with 15µM than with 50 and 100; WOB was lower (P<0.05) with 100µM than with 0, 15, and 25; and BCF was higher (P<0.05) with 75 and 100µM than with 0. In turn, in Experiment 2, progressive motility was higher (P<0.05) with0 and 15µM than with50 and 75; LIN was lower (P<0.05) with75 and100µM than with0 and 15; WOB was higher (P<0.05) with0 and 15µM; and PMi was greater (P<0.05) with100µM than 0. Thus, (+)-catechin or EGCG at higher concentrations inhibits the kinematics of frozen goat sperm, in a transitory way, and 100µM of EGCG preserves the PMi.
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