Objective To systematically review the literature on the clinical outcomes of scapular-focused treatments in participants with subacromial pain syndrome (SPS). Design Systematic literature review. Studies were appraised by two reviewers using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale, and a best-evidence synthesis was performed.
Background: Measurement of respiratory muscle function is important in the diagnosis of respiratory muscle disease, respiratory failure, to assess the impact of chronic diseases, and/or to evaluate respiratory muscle function after treatment. Objectives: To establish reference values for maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure, and the tension-time index at rest in healthy children and adolescents aged 8–19 years, as well as to present sex- and age-related reference centiles normalized for demographic and anthropometric determinants. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, demographic, anthropometric, and spirometric data were assessed, as well as data on respiratory muscle strength (PImax and PEmax) and work of breathing at rest (TT0.1), in a total of 251 children (117 boys and 134 girls; mean age 13.4 ± 2.9 years). Reference values are presented as reference centiles developed by use of the lambda, mu, sigma method. Results: Boys had significantly higher PImax and PEmax values. Next to sex and age, fat-free mass appeared to be an important predictor of respiratory muscle strength. Reference centiles demonstrated a slight, almost linear increase in PImax with age in boys, and a less steep increase with age in girls. TT0.1 values did not differ between boys and girls and decreased linearly with age. Conclusion: This study provides reference values for respiratory muscle strength and work of breathing at rest. In addition to sex and age, fat-free mass was found to be an important predictor of respiratory muscle strength in boys and girls.
The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology workgroup (OMERACT), together with the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) developed the OMERACT-OARSI responder criteria. These criteria are used to determine if a patient with osteoarthritis (OA) ‘responds’ to therapy, meaning experiences a clinically relevant effect of therapy. Recently, more clinical OA trials report on this outcome and most OA trials have data to calculate the number of responders according to these criteria. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the response to exercise therapy, compared to no or minimal intervention in patients with hip OA using the OMERACT-OARSI responder criteria. The literature was searched for relevant randomized trials. If a trial fit the inclusion criteria, but number of responders was not reported, the first author was contacted. This way the numbers of responders of 14 trials were collected and a meta-analysis on short term (directly after treatment, 12 trials n = 1178) and long term (6–8 months after treatment, six trials n = 519) outcomes was performed. At short term, the risk difference (RD) was 0.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06–0.22) and number needed to treat (NNT) 7.1 (95% CI 4.5–17); at long term RD was 0.14 (95% CI 0.07–0.20) and NNT 7.1 (95% CI 5.0–14.3). Quality of evidence was moderate for the short term and high for the long term. In conclusion, 14% more hip OA patients responded to exercise therapy than to no therapy.
Background: Esophageal cancer and curative treatment have a significant impact on the physical fitness of patients. Knowledge about the course of physical fitness during neoadjuvant therapy and esophagectomy is helpful to determine the needs for interventions during and after curative treatment. This study aims to review the current evidence on the impact of curative treatment on the physical fitness of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library was conducted up to March 29, 2021. We included observational studies investigating the change of physical fitness (including exercise capacity, muscle strength, physical activity and activities of daily living) from pre-to post-neoadjuvant therapy and/or from pre-to post-esophagectomy. Quality of the studies was assessed and a meta-analysis was performed using standardized mean differences. Results: Twenty-seven articles were included. After neoadjuvant therapy, physical fitness decreased significantly. In the first three months after surgery, physical fitness was also significantly decreased compared to preoperative values. Subgroup analysis showed a restore in exercise capacity three months after surgery in patients who followed an exercise program. Six months after surgery, there was limited evidence that exercise capacity restored to preoperative values. Conclusion: Curative treatment seems to result in a decrease of physical fitness in patients with esophageal cancer, up to three months postoperatively. Six months postoperatively, results were conflicting. In patients who followed a pre-or postoperative exercise program, the postoperative impact of curative treatment seems to be less.
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