Ligamentous supination-external rotation Stage IV fractures with an intact mortise on static radiographs can be initially treated nonoperatively. Weightbearing radiographs should be utilized to assess congruency of the ankle mortise during an early post-injury visit. Utilizing this approach, a significant number of surgeries were avoided, and good to excellent results were obtained. From our early experience, nonoperative treatment of pronation-external rotation III/IV injuries using this protocol is not recommended.
Musculoskeletal injury can substantially affect orthopaedic surgeons and productivity. The objective of this study was to assess occupation-related neck pain and cervical radiculopathy/myelopathy among orthopaedic surgeons and to identify the potential risk factors for injury.
An online survey was sent to orthopaedic surgeons via their state orthopaedic society. The survey consisted of items related to orthopaedic practices, such as the number of arthroscopic procedures done and the use of microscopes/loupes. The prevalence, potential causes, and reporting practices of neck pain and cervical radiculopathy/myelopathy among orthopaedic surgeons were also assessed.
There were 685 responses from surgeons representing 27 states. A total of 59.3% of respondents reported neck pain and 22.8% reported cervical radiculopathy. After adjusting for age and sex, surgeons performing arthroscopy had an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.4 to 8.3, P = 0.007) for neck pain. Only five of the surgeons with neck pain and one of the surgeons with cervical radiculopathy/myelopathy had ergonomic evaluations.
Neck pain and cervical radiculopathy/myelopathy are common among orthopaedic surgeons. Associated factors included older age, higher stress levels, and performing arthroscopy. Cervical injuries are rarely reported, and ergonomic workplace evaluations are infrequent.
Study Design. A retrospective cohort study with chart review. Objective. To determine whether there is a difference in reoperation rates for adjacent segment disease ([ASD] operative ASD) in posterior cervical fusions (PCFs) that stop at -C7 versus -T1/T2. Summary of Background Data. There are surgical treatment challenges to the anatomical complexities of the cervicothoracic junction. Current posterior cervical spine surgery is based on the belief that ASD occurs if fusions are stopped at C7 although there is varying evidence to support this assumption. Methods. Patients were followed until validated reoperations for ASD, membership termination, death, or March 31, 2020. Descriptive statistics and 5-year crude incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals for operative ASD for PCF ending at -C7 or -T1/T2 were reported. Time-dependent crude and adjusted multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazards models were used to evaluate operative ASD rates with adjustment for covariates or risk change estimates more than 10%. Results. We identified 875 patients with PCFs (beginning at C3 or C4 or C5 or C6) stopping at either -C7 (n ¼ 470) or -T1/T2 (n ¼ 405) with average follow-up time of 4.6 (AE3.3) years and average time to operative ASD of 2.7 (AE2.8) years. Crude overall incidence rates for stopping at -C7 (2.12% [1.02%-3.86%]) and -T1/T2 (2.48% [1.25%-4.40%]) were comparable with no statistical difference in risk (adjusted hazard ratio ¼ 1.47, 95% confidence interval ¼ 0.61-3.53, P ¼ 0.39). In addition, we observed no differences in the probability of operative ASD in competing risk time-dependent models (Grey test P ¼ 0.448).
Conclusion.A large cohort of 875 patients with PCFs stopping at -C7 or -T1/T2 with an average follow-up of more than 4 years found no statistical difference in reoperation rates for ASD (operative ASD).
Patients with AIS appear to compensate for abnormal thoracic sagittal alignment with changes in cervical sagittal alignment. This seems intuitive for Lenke 1 and 2 curves in which surgical restoration of thoracic kyphosis is a recognized goal and has been shown to improve cervical alignment. Cervical kyphosis was also noted in Lenke 5 and 6 curves, which suggests a need to consider compensatory thoracic and cervical sagittal alignment during surgical planning. Patients with Lenke 3 and 4 curves had more normal cervical alignment, which suggests that with the major portion of the curve located in the middle of the spine, there is more ability above and below to maintain a more normal sagittal alignment.
OBJECTIVEBisphosphonates are used to increase bone strength in treating osteopenia and osteoporosis, but their use for increasing lumbar fusion rates has been controversial. The objective of this study was to determine if preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates affects the reoperation rates for nonunions (operative nonunion rates) following lumbar fusions in patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis.METHODSThe authors conducted a cohort study using data from the Kaiser Permanente Spine Registry. Patients (aged ≥ 50 years) with a diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis who underwent primary elective lumbar fusions for degenerative disc disease, deformity, or spondylolisthesis were included in the cohort. Repeated spinal procedures at the index lumbar levels were noted through chart review. Reoperations for symptomatic nonunions (operative nonunions), time to nonunion, and the nonunion spine level(s) were also identified. The crude 2-year cumulative incidence of operative nonunions was calculated as 1 minus the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate the association between preoperative bisphosphonate use and operative nonunion after adjustment for covariates. Analysis was stratified by osteopenia and osteoporosis diagnosis.RESULTSThe cohort comprised 1040 primary elective lumbar fusion patients, 408 with osteopenia and 632 with osteoporosis. Ninety-seven (23.8%) patients with osteopenia and 370 (58.5%) patients with osteoporosis were preoperative bisphosphonate users. For the osteopenia group, no operative nonunions were observed in patients with preoperative bisphosphonate, while the crude 2-year incidence was 2.44% (95% CI 0.63–4.22) in the nonuser group. For the osteoporotic group, after adjustment for covariates, no difference was observed in risk for operative nonunions between the preoperative bisphosphonate users and nonusers (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.20–4.55, p = 0.964).CONCLUSIONSTo the authors’ knowledge, this study presents one of the largest series of patients with the diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis in whom the effects of preoperative bisphosphonates on lumbar fusions were evaluated using operative nonunion rates as an outcome measure. The results indicate that preoperative bisphosphonate use had no effect on the operative nonunion rates for patients with osteoporosis. Similar indications were not confirmed in osteopenia patients because of the low nonunion frequency. Further studies are warranted to the determine if preoperative and postoperative timing of bisphosphonate use has any effect on lumbar fusion rates.
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