Here we show that ClpB is a non-processive translocase that takes, at most, two steps on the polypeptide backbone before dissociation. These findings indicate that ClpB is not likely to translocate polypeptide through its axial channel as previously concluded.
Recent Hsp104 structural studies have reported both planar and helical models of the hexameric structure. The conformation of Hsp104 monomers within the hexamer is affected by nucleotide ligation. After nucleotide-driven hexamer formation, Hsp104-catalyzed disruption of protein aggregates requires binding to the peptide substrate. Here, we examine the oligomeric state of Hsp104 and its peptide binding competency in the absence of nucleotide and in the presence of ADP, ATPγS, AMPPNP, or AMPPCP. Surprisingly, we found that only ATPγS facilitates avid peptide binding by Hsp104. We propose that the modulation between high-and low-peptide affinity states observed with these ATP analogues is an important component of the disaggregation mechanism of Hsp104.
Cellular proteostasis involves not only the expression of proteins in response to environmental needs, but also the timely repair or removal of damaged or unneeded proteins. AAA+ motor proteins are critically involved in these pathways. Here, we review the structure and function of AAA+ proteins ClpA, ClpB, and Hsp104. ClpB and Hsp104 rescue damaged proteins from toxic aggregates and do not partner with any protease. ClpA functions as the regulatory component of the ATP dependent protease complex ClpAP, and also remodels inactive RepA dimers into active monomers in the absence of the protease. Because ClpA functions both with and without a proteolytic component, it is an ideal system for developing strategies that address one of the major challenges in the study of protein remodeling machines: how do we observe a reaction in which the substrate protein does not undergo covalent modification? Here, we review experimental designs developed for the examination of polypeptide translocation catalyzed by the AAA+ motors in the absence of proteolytic degradation. We propose that transient state kinetic methods are essential for the examination of elementary kinetic mechanisms of these motor proteins. Furthermore, rigorous kinetic analysis must also account for the thermodynamic properties of these complicated systems that reside in a dynamic equilibrium of oligomeric states, including the biologically active hexamer.
Scaffolding and peer review methods were combined on an online platform to develop scientific writing skills in an undergraduate organic chemistry lab.Collaboration was encouraged throughout the semester.First students anonymously critiqued lab report sections from their peers through the online platform. Later, small groups produced complete reports built up from the sections covered by peer review. Each student served a different role in the group, moving from a collaborative approach towards independent writing. The culmination of the semester was a complete report, produced independent of peer or instructor guidance. Implementation was accomplished through a series of rubrics, worksheets, and instructor feedback. Preliminary assessment of these curriculum changes indicates that student writing skills improved and that student feedback is mixed, but generally positive. The ultimate goal is the development of writing skills in lower-level chemistry labs in preparation for writing-intensive upper-level labs.
ClpB and DnaKJE provide protection to Escherichia coli cells during extreme environmental stress. Together, this co-chaperone system can resolve protein aggregates, restoring misfolded proteins to their native form and function in solubilizing damaged proteins for removal by the cell's proteolytic systems. DnaK is the component of the KJE system that directly interacts with ClpB. There are many hypotheses for how DnaK affects ClpB-catalyzed disaggregation, each with some experimental support. Here, we build on our recent work characterizing the molecular mechanism of ClpB-catalyzed polypeptide translocation by developing a stopped-flow FRET assay that allows us to detect ClpB's movement on model polypeptide substrates in the absence or presence of DnaK. We find that DnaK induces ClpB to dissociate from the polypeptide substrate. We propose that DnaK acts as a peptide release factor, binding ClpB and causing the ClpB conformation to change to a low-peptide affinity state. Such a role for DnaK would allow ClpB to rebind to another portion of an aggregate and continue nonprocessive translocation to disrupt the aggregate.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.