The early survival advantage in the intensive care unit suggests a window of critical opportunity for these patients. Under economic constraints and dearth of intensive care unit beds, increasing the turnover of patients in the intensive care unit, thus exposing more needy patients to the early benefit of treatment in the intensive care unit, may be advantageous.
Only a small proportion of eligible patients reach the intensive care unit, and early admission is imperative for their survival advantage. As intensive care unit benefit was most pronounced among those deteriorating on hospital wards, intensive care unit triage decisions should be targeted at maximizing intensive care unit benefit by early admitting patients deteriorating on hospital wards.
Data related to risk factors for catheter-acquired bacteriuria were collected prospectively on 112 patients consecutively catheterized for >24 hours at the Hadassah University Hospital. Logistic regression analysis indicated that factors independently associated (p≤0.05) with a higher risk of catheter-acquired bacteriuria were as follows: hospitalization in orthopedics or urology, ethnic origin (Arabs > Jews), insertion of a catheter after the sixth day of hospitalization, catheterization outside the operating theaters, lack of administration of systemic antibiotics, unsatisfactory catheter care, and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of catheterization before infection occurred. The risk associated with catheterization outside the operating theater could be explained by its correlate, that is, catheterization for incontinence/obstruction as opposed to output measurement. Life-table analyses demonstrated that the daily risk for acquiring bacteriuria during the first six days of catheterization was higher among patients ultimately catheterized for ≥7 days than among those ultimately catheterized for < 7 days (P<0.05).
As part of a standardized, multi-hospital prospective surveillance system for nosocomial infections in Rhode Island, an analysis was undertaken in March 1980-February 1982 to determine the interplay of factors that contribute to the risk of phlebitis in peripheral, non-steel, non-butterfly intravenous catheters. The authors studied 3094 patients with 5161 total episodes of peripheral intravenous catheters from day of admission until day of discharge. The overall rate of phlebitis was 2.3% (118 episodes), and the rate of intravenous catheter-associated bacteremia was 0.08% (1 definite episode, 3 possible episodes). Factors significantly associated with the occurrence of phlebitis were: underlying risk for any nosocomial infection, duration of the catheter episode, chronological order of the episode and an interaction between the latter two variables. Analysis of day-specific risk of phlebitis indicated that, for patients with low risk diagnoses, initial peripheral intravenous catheters might be left in place with relative safety for up to 96 hours. Over this time period, the day-specific risk for such patients ranged between 0.8% and 1.4%, exclusive of the first day. In all other circumstances, the current recommendation of 48-72 hours seems appropriate.
Total readmissions after CABG in Israel were difficult to predict, even with an extensive pre-discharge follow-up data. We propose that reasons for readmission vary from true emergencies to nonspecific causes, with the latter related to a lack of support services in the community. We suggest that cause-specific rehospitalizations could be a better outcome for evaluating quality of care.
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