Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times.
OBJECTIVES. Population-based data on body mass index for developing countries are scarce. Body mass index data from two Brazilian surveys were examined to determine regional and temporal variations in the prevalences of underweight, overweight, and obesity. METHODS. Nationwide surveys in 1974/75 and 1989 collected anthropometric data in Brazil from 55,000 and 14,455 households, respectively. Trained interviewers used the same methods to measure weight and stature in both surveys, and survey designs were identical. Prevalences of underweight, overweight, and obesity were determined for persons 18 years of age and older. RESULTS. In the 1989 survey, body mass index varied greatly according to region of the country, urbanization, and income. In the wealthier South, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was the highest and the prevalence of underweight was the lowest; in the poorer rural Northeast, these patterns were reversed. For both surveys, overweight/obesity was more common among women than among men and peaked at age 45 to 64 years in both sexes. Over the 15 years between surveys, the prevalence of both overweight and obesity increased strikingly. CONCLUSIONS. In contrast to findings in developed countries, obesity in Brazil was positively associated with income and was much more prevalent among women than among men. For Brazilian women, the overall prevalence of overweight was nearly as high as that among women in the United States.
The project entitled Promotion of Health Eating Habits by Schools, operating in the Federal District of Brazil since 2001, encourages good eating habits in the school community within the context of promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing chronic non-communicable diseases. The current article presents and analyzes a methodology to train preschool and elementary educators and school cafeteria owners. The workshops included theoretical classes, practical activities, and educational games and were evaluated on the basis of expansion and applicability of knowledge, in addition to implementation of the 10 steps to a healthy school cafeteria. The proposed pedagogical activities were verified by an analysis of the teachers' workshop folders. The overall evaluation was positive, with expansion of knowledge (p < 0.05) among participants for the three workshop modules. The objectives laid out in the workshop folders were reached by 44% of the teachers. In the implementation of the healthy cafeteria, positive results were observed when comparing the pre and post-training periods. The methodology helped expand knowledge for both teachers and cafeteria owners, highlighting the school community as a prime space for promoting healthy eating.
OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a formação em saúde pública nos cursos de graduação em Nutrição, considerando o perfil dos professores e disciplinas oferecidas na área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal tendo sido enviados questionários a todas as instituições públicas e particulares brasileiras com graduação em Nutrição e com ao menos uma turma formada até o primeiro semestre de 2010 (n=296). Avaliou-se, o tempo de funcionamento dos cursos; número de vagas, oferta de cursos de pós-graduação; disciplinas que compõem a área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública, carga horária, distribuição de horas entre aulas teóricas e práticas e formação dos professores por elas responsáveis. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidos 65 questionários (22,0%). A maioria dos cursos destinou no máximo 30% da carga horária total para as disciplinas de Nutrição em Saúde Pública. Em média, 82,2% das disciplinas de Nutrição em Saúde Pública eram obrigatórias. Quase um quarto da carga horária das disciplinas de Nutrição em Saúde Pública é destinado a atividades práticas. Nas instituições públicas, 48,0% dos cursos apresentavam mais da metade do total de professores nutricionistas, contra 17,5% nas particulares. CONCLUSÃO: A área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública caracteriza-se pelas disciplinas de Avaliação Nutricional, Educação Nutricional, Nutrição em Saúde Pública e Epidemiologia. Nos cursos estudados identificou-se a necessidade de aumentar a oferta de disciplinas que contribuam para a formação de profissionais voltados para o Sistema Único de Saúde, com capacidade de análise dos problemas nutricionais considerando o contexto histórico-político-econômico-demográfico-ambiental e epidemiológico. Percebeu-se ainda insuficiência na abordagem de áreas que não strito sensu de saúde como alimentação escolar e segurança alimentar e nutricional.
Objective: To outline a framework and a process for assessing the needs for capacity development to achieve nutrition objectives, particularly those targeting maternal and child undernutrition. Design: Commentary and conceptual framework. Setting: Low-and middle-income countries. Result: A global movement to invest in a package of essential nutrition interventions to reduce maternal and child undernutrition in low-and middle-income countries is building momentum. Capacity to act in nutrition is known to be minimal in most low-and middle-income countries, and there is a need for conceptual clarity about capacity development as a strategic construct and the processes required to realise the ability to achieve population nutrition and health objectives. The framework for nutrition capacity development proposed recognises capacity to be determined by a range of factors across at least four levels, including system, organisational, workforce and community levels. This framework provides a scaffolding to guide systematic assessment of capacity development needs which serves to inform strategic planning for capacity development. Conclusions: Capacity development is a critical prerequisite for achieving nutrition and health objectives, but is currently constrained by ambiguous and superficial conceptualisations of what capacity development involves and how it can be realised. The current paper provides a framework to assist this conceptualisation, encourage debate and ongoing refinement, and progress capacity development efforts.
Resumo É apresentado um balanço da implementação das diretrizes da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição (PNAN) contextualizando as ações no cenário do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS
Objective To analyze public policies on food and nutrition in Brazil, with emphasis on the last fifteen years (2003-2018). Methods Historical-documentary analysis based on a bibliographical survey on indexed bases and exploratory visits to websites of government agencies. Results The scientific and governmental findings were organized according to the Lula, Dilma and Temer governments. They explore the development of several public policies and welfare programs in food and nutrition, focusing mainly on Brazilian Hunger Eradication Program, Assistance for Needy Families Program, National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security, Food Acquisition Program, National School Nutrition Program, National Food and Nutrition Security Policy, National Food and Nutrition Surveillance System and Brazilian Misery Eradication Program. The centrality of the idea of the fight against hunger and misery in public policies during Lula’s first and second terms and Dilma’s first term stand out. Dilma’s second term is marked by the focus on healthy eating, as well as presenting the first signs of fragilization of public policies on food and nutrition. Currently, the Temer government is characterized by processes of institutional and programmatic rupture, budget cuts and setbacks in acquired rights. There is evidence of the need to activate national and international instruments to enforce the human right to adequate food and consequent strengthening of public policies on food and nutrition. Conclusion This period presents an expansion and qualification of public policies on food and nutrition, mainly in the Lula and Dilma administration, with setbacks in the Temer administration, in which continuous budget cuts weaken social, hunger reduction, poverty reduction and food and nutrition security policies.
Objective: To characterize the school cafeterias in the Federal District of Brazil with respect to the promotion of healthy eating in schools. Methods: This is a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of schools with cafeterias in the Federal District, Brazil (n=202). The data were collected from April to November 2010 by means of on-site interviews and a structured questionnaire. The Pearson's chi-squared and Student's t tests were used. Results: A higher prevalence of outsourcing, and few employees and dieticians were observed. The prevailing foods were baked sausage, cheese, or chicken rolls or pastries. It was also found that 42.2% of the schools influence the menu of the cafeterias, and 58.6% of the representatives believe in the possibility of influencing the students' eating habits. However, 68.0% of the respondents do not believe in the economic feasibility of completely healthful school cafeterias. Approximately 30.0% of the respondents carry out activities to promote healthy eating. Conclusion: Most of the school cafeterias in the Federal District do not encourage healthful eating. The high prevalence of outsourced services with little interference from the school community gives high autonomy to the cafeteria's owner, whose priority is the pursuit of profit at the expense of the students' nutritional education. Improving the nutritional quality of school foods should be a continuous interactive effort of the food suppliers, principals, students, parents, and government authorities.
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